Egypt – Cities And Towns

Although eight Egyptian towns are officially classed as “cities,” and form distinct governments (mohafzas) apart from the provinces to which they geographically belong, only two—Cairo and Alexandria—can be strictly called so in our European sense. The other six * do not properly rise above the rank of .towns, while of the 113 to which this […]

Egypt – Administration

BASED on the treaties, firmans, and accomplished facts noticed in the previous chapter, the present Government of Egypt consists of—the Khedive. The formal work of administration is carried on through a Privy Council and eight Ministers, nearly as originally organised by Mehemet All, who in the machinery of government as in most else revolutionised everything, […]

Egypt – Finances

THE finances of Egypt have followed the same law of growth which has ruled in nearly every economical feature of the country during the past forty years. In 1835 the revenue was estimated at 2,600,0001., and the expenditure at about 2,300, 0001., without any public debt whatever. In 1862, the last year of Saïd Pasha’s […]

Egypt – The Daïras

In extent of their domains, revenues, and unhappily also of their debt, these administrations rank next after the State Government. Up till last year, indeed, they formed virtually a branch of it, the financial relations of the two departments being so intermixed as to make it difficult to say where the one began or the […]

Egypt – Commerce

HOWEVER the problem of Egyptian finance may ultimately solve itself, its difficulties have at least been in no way caused by any decline in the national trade. Not only has this, till within the last eighteen or twenty months, more than kept pace with the rapid growth of the revenue, but in most of its […]

Egypt – Agriculture

ALTHOUGH anciently as famous for her manufactures as for her husbandry, in all modern time the latter alone has been the staple industry of Egypt. Her old skill in the productive arts, which once surpassed that of Sidon and Tyre, has long been forgotten, and in the almost complete absence of mineral resources, for more […]

Egypt – Egypt And The Porte

BEFORE proceeding to describe the administration and present condition of the territory and population thus noticed, it may be worth while to state briefly the elements of the problem involved in the international status now reached by Egypt and its ruler. We say problem, because not only is the relation of the Khedive to the […]

Egypt – The Soudan

IN Western geography Nigritia, or the Country of the Blacks, comprises the great expanse of eastern Africa between Nubia and the Equator, and westwards any-where beyond Lake Tchad. to the Niger. But the Egyptian Soudan, though covering nearly the whole of this area southward, is bounded westwards by Darfour, ex-tending on the east to the […]

Egypt – Population

WHATEVER may have been the origin of the ancient Egyptians—whether Semitic or Aryan, as ethnologists much dispute—their modern successors are many-raced, and no two estimates of their number agree. Arabs, Copts, Turks, Nubians, Greeks, Jews, Armenians, and Levantines of every shade of mixed Eastern and European blood, they have been variously computed at from 1,500,000 […]

Egypt – Manufacturing And Other Industries

THE great development in Egyptian agriculture and trade within the past twenty or thirty years has not been attended by corresponding improvement in the skilled industries of the country. With a few exceptions these are still as backward as they were a hundred years ago. In the three centuries of mixed Turkish and Mamlouk misrule […]