British Rule And India

“What is truth?” asked Pilate, and when he had asked the question he went out without waiting for an answer. The question has been asked many times and answered in many different ways. I was re-minded of a similar question when I read over the door of a court house in Aligarh, India., the motto […]

Eastern India

We have at least reached India-and what extremes are here ! Southern India penetrates the Indian Ocean and is so near the Equator that the inhabitants swelter under the heat of a perpetual summer, while the rocky sentinels that guard the northern frontier are clad in the ice of an eternal winter: As might be […]

Europe Looks At India – Buddhism And The Superman

The preceding chapters attempted an analysis of the European response to the discovery of the East, the way in which some outstanding leaders of Western thought at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nine-teenth century reacted to Indian religions, philosophy, and art. What began as an intellectual adventure, political curiosity, and […]

Europe Looks At India – Integrating The East

Three more countries remain to be considered. In all of them alike the impact of the East led to a revival both in the domain of literature and of religion. We have already seen how the discovery of India affected the romantic revival, especially in Germany. Although it may be an exaggeration to say that […]

Europe Looks At India – The Enlightenment

The nineteenth-century romantics were by no means the first to ‘discover’ India. Already during the eighteenth century we can feel the first breath of a new dawn it frequently comes from the most unexpected sources. And we can see those urbane, highly refined and sophisticated men and women, proud of their growing empires, their discoveries […]

Europe Looks At India – The Modern Dilemma

A study of the contemporary western response towards India is possible only on the basis of the nineteenth-century conflict between ideal and practice, theory and realization. The conflict, instead of being solved, was greatly intensified by the economic and political struggles of the first decades of this century. The attempt to solve the problem in […]

Europe Looks At India – The Moral Challenge

The English response to India before and during the French Revolution was the result of criticism levelled by Englishmen against the British administration of India. Even Johnson who, as we have seen, knew very little about India suggested improvements in the government. England, throughout the second half of the eighteenth century, was obsessed by the […]

Europe Looks At India – The Problem Of Response

The study of cultural relations, far from being a merely intellectual subject-matter to be treated academically, involves the scholar in an analysis of what might be called cultural dynamics, a study of parallel developments, influences, and cross-currents, in the civilization of countries or continents, and the way they affect human beings, both as individuals and […]

Europe Looks At India – The Reaction

Just as the political history of a continent is very largely the result of the continuous struggle of opposing forces in conflict, cultural evolution also is determined by similar antithetical currents and movements. Al-though it may not be always possible to foresee such an evolution in detail we can observe similar principles at work which […]

Europe Looks At India – The Vision

While the two Frenchmen, the sceptic ‘and the priest, laboriously collected materials for their books on India, the one stressing the historical tendencies that manifested themselves in contemporary India, the other insisting on the social and religious forces that were visible to the untrained European eye, a small number of Englishmen living in India started […]