December 19..We left Florence December 17th at 1 :20 in the afternoon. At 5 :10 the same day we reached Arezzo. We walked from the station to our Hotel Angleterre where we found, not unexpectedly, a cold room and a cold stone floor. L. asked for “fuoco in letto” (fire in bed). Willingly they placed in our very broad bed two small stoves or pots of coals in curious frames. Before we left our pension in Florence L. was advised to ask for these and prepared him-self in Italian. We should have suffered in that cold bed and cold room if it had not been for those two comforts. A fire in the large fireplace very slowly warmed the great room, although we felt the warmth but little as we sat together near the fire. In this birthplace of Petrarch we saw a cafe and a theatre named for him. We were interested in the town and in the narrow, uphill streets. The journey from Florence to Arezzo, although short, could not have been more delightful. The air was clear and the views were fine. San Miniato was on our right and Fiesole on our left as we left Florence. We could see the statue of David on the Piazzale Michaelangelo, much to our surprise, and snow on the distant summits. How much we enjoyed our trips to those wonderful hills !
As we walked to the Arezzo station yesterday morning I could not help wishing that we might remain longer in that interesting, queer old place, but at nine o’clock we left for Rome, reaching here at 1:20. We much enjoyed the journey all the way from Florence to this city. The valley of the Arno interested us. There were vineyards containing grape vines trained on trees. These were without posts or wires and were severely pruned. There were towns with walls on high hills, including Cartona. L. thinks “these ancient towns on high bluffs as interesting as the castles on the Rhine.” We saw Lake Thrasymenus where the Romans suffered defeat by Hannibal. There was a fog when the battle took place and there was a fog as we approached the lake but it lifted and we saw the lake distinctly. We saw many flocks of sheep with their shepherds and had our first glimpse of the river Tiber. Rows of short, bushy, green trees on the hills presented a curious appearance. Many trees were covered with dead leaves.
L. walked out yesterday after our arrival here to Piazza del Popolo and went into the church Santa Maria del Popolo. Today after breakfast we went into two other churches. L. looked up three pensions this morning but remained in-doors this afternoon. The weather is cooler than of late. We have had three bright days in succession but the street we are in is so narrow and the buildings in front so high that no sun can reach our room. We hope tomorrow to find a better one. Neither of us yet realize that we are in Romethe “Eternal City.” We caught glimpses of the ancient part from our train.
December 20.We have moved this afternoon from Fisher’s Hotel to Hotel de la Ville on Piazza Barberini. Mrs. Rhodes and Mrs. Karmine are both here. Mrs. K.
we met in Florence and Mrs. R. first in Venice. L. met Mrs. Platner on Via del Tritone today.
December 21.We have had this morning our first glimpse of St. Peter’s Church, the largest church in the world. This Basilica di S. Pietro in Vaticano stands on the Piazza of the same name which is a large open space in front of St. Peter’s. It is thought that four hundred thou-sand people could stand together on this great Square. In the center is a fine Egyptian obelisk. There are also two splendid fountains and two statuesone of St. Peter and one of St. Paul. Although the piazza is of great size, St. Peter’s is not as large in appearance as my imagination had pictured it.
December 22.Mrs. K. and two other ladies went with us this morning to see the castle of St. Angelo. On the summit of this immense round tower, which is not only high but very large in circumference, stands the statue of St. Michael the archangel. Hence its name. As we could not be admitted until eleven we went into St. Peter’s for awhile. At eleven we returned and the guide took us into the castle. We were taken into the prison cells. We saw where the food was long ago let down to prisoners, and the deep, dark places where their bodies were thrown. On our way to the top we saw the trap doors and the holes where the burning oil was thrown down upon enemies. This castle was a place of safety for the Popes in times of danger when it was necessary to defend themselves. Originally it was encased in marble. From its summit we had a fine view of the city and the distant mountains with snow upon them. While we were there, at the falling of a big, black ball, a cannon was fired on a bastion of the castle at exactly twelve o’clock. The judgment hall, dining hall, a bedroom formerly occupied by a Pope and a bathroom were finely frescoed. We looked with interest at the covered passageway leading from the Vatican to the castle, built for the use of the Popes by order of Pope Alexander VI. Clement VII took refuge in the castle when Rome was sacked in 1527. Begun by Emperor Hadrian for a mausoleum for himself and for successive emperors, it was completed by the next emperor, Antonius Pius, in 140 A. D., two years after the death of Hadrian. In the tenth century the mausoleum became a fortress.
Before reaching the castle we crossed the river Tiber on a very ancient bridgePonte S. Angelo. This also was built by Hadrian. It is a most remarkable bridge, ornamented with twelve colossal statuesSt. Peter and St. Paul and ten angels with the instruments of the Passion.
This afternoon we have been to Hotel Chapman and to see Mr. Avanzi.
December 23.We walked this morning to Pension Mar-ley and looked at rooms. Mrs. R. is there. We have taken other walks about the city. This afternoon from our window we saw a procession of men in red gowns and black hats. We have seen many wearing black gowns and black hats with broad brims in all the Italian cities. Here the black gowns have trimmings of red, blue, or some other color. From our room we can see in the centre of this piazza a fountain with four dolphins supporting a shell and a Triton. An electric light shines into our room all night. We saw a meat market where only horse flesh is sold.
December 24.Christmas services have been held in several of the churches today. This morning we attended a service in Santa Maria Maggiore”one of the largest, finest and most important churches in Rome.” This very old church, founded in 352, has a rich and wonderfully beautiful interior. The roof is gilded with the first gold brought to Spain from South America. It was given to the Pope by Ferdinand and Isabella. The high altar is embellished with many precious stones. Underneath this altar are said to be preserved “relics of the cradle of our Savior” and the ashes of St. Matthias and other saints. A guide took us into the chapel of the Holy Sacrament. In this chapel is the elegant tabernacle which holds the Sacrament. Opposite this chapel is the Borghese Chapel of the Holy Virgin. There we attended a part of a service. Two priests were dressed in elegant purple robes. This chapel contains a picture of the Virgin, attributed to St. Luke, which is surrounded with amethysts and other precious stones and is supported by angels of gilt bronze. It is indistinct. We looked at the jewels with our field glass. The baptistery contains the elegant baptismal font. We witnessed there the consecration of the bread and wine. After leaving the church we went through a small and very noisy market near by.
This afternoon we visited the church of San Giovanni in Laterano or St. John Lateran. This is the church of the Pope as Bishop of Rome and here his coronation takes place. In this magnificent interior we were present at vespers. The music was fine; L. and I much enjoyed it. Six priests were dressed in glittering white robes trimmed heavily with gold. The Cardinal also wore a white robe which was much more heavily trimmed than the others. Underneath his white robe was a long trailing scarlet robe which was carried by attendant priests. On his feet were scarlet shoes. He wore, over a red cap, a mitre of white and gold, which was some-times taken from his head. He stood or walked in the procession with clasped hands and closed eyes much of the time. The priests and Cardinal formed a procession and walked out of the Chapel, where the service was held, the Cardinal turning and waving incense before the different altars. On their return to the Chapel the service was continued. At the conclusion they again walked out in procession to the disrobing room. The doors were open and we saw them removing their robes. We returned to our hotel in two electric trams. Passed a hearse trimmed with flowers, led by a brass band playing lively music. Florence was level and easy to get about in. Rome is very hilly and many of the omnibuses and cars are not accessible.
December 25.-Christmas day away from our own native land ! We have been this morning to the Church of S. Maria Aracoeli. Here the Santissimo Bambino (Most Holy Babe) has its home. This image, carved from olive wood at Jerusalem in the fourteenth century, was arrayed in white silk and richly decorated with jewels of various kinds. It is thought by the Catholics to represent our Savior as an infant and is held in great veneration because of its supposed miraculous power of curing the sick.
A great crowd was in that vast church to see the procession. The Bambino was carried rather high so that we all might see it. On its head was a golden crown surmounted by a cross. Afterwards, when passing out of the church we saw it in its manger on a bed of straw, in what appeared to be a cave or cavern with a long vista beyond. High up in this cavern, above the Bambino, was a representation of God the Father surrounded by a multitude of angels. Below, with the Bambino, were pictures of Joseph and Mary and others, with cattle and sheep. The whole cavern was illuminated, the light shining down from above. It is said that “at the sight of this image the most serious illnesses are cured.” Almost daily it is carried to some sick person as a Sacrament. The people, recognizing it by a bit of the white skirt purposely displayed out of the carriage window, kneel as it passes by.” A long, broad flight of steps leads up to this church, which has an unfinished facade.
This afternoon we visited first the church of the JesuitsIl Gesu. This “most gorgeous church in Rome” is one of the largest and is rich in fine stuccoes, paintings, sculptures and costly marbles. As no service was to be held there until five we did not wait but took an electric tram for the Church of S. Maria Maggiore. There, in that beautiful church, where we had been before and which I tried to describe, we attended vespers with fine music. We were in a terrible jam and almost crushed while we stood waiting to see the procession which was to carry “the relics of our Savior’s cradle.” We saw them take down from the altar the beautiful receptacle which contained these supposed relics. The golden cover was left on, but the sides were re-moved and we looked through the glass at the pieces of wood. The procession was composed of priests, led by the choir, who sang as the procession passed through the crowded church. We were close by as they passed, many of them carrying lighted candles. The Cardinal, wearing a white cape of lamb’s wool, did not officiate. He wore on his head only the scarlet cap.
Here at our hotel a Christmas dinner was given to us all. The table, decorated with beautiful flowers, had for a center-piece a pyramid and pillar of different kinds of fruit. Not far away was a pretty cake with “A Happy Christmas.” There was a variety of cake and confectionery and three kinds of wine. On our way up the steps to the Aracoeli church this morning we met hucksters of various toys crying out at the tops of their voices. Among other things they were selling mice that ran around as though they were alive. We passed also on our way up to the church a little garden where there were three wolves in a cage. A living wolf is the “sacred symbol of Rome.” Leaving the church and descending the steps we went to the Roman Forum for a short time. This is the fifth perfectly clear day. On all these days ice has formed about the Triton fountain. The thermometer, which L. puts on the outside of the window sill, has been 40 degrees.
December 27.L. has a feverish cold. Prof. Platner called upon us yesterday. It is delightful to meet these friends here. Both of us have remained indoors yesterday and today. We are very cold in this hotel and do not know what to do. On Friday and Saturday we greatly overdid. Going into crowded churches and waiting so long for pro-cessions we found quite wearisome. We find very pleasant, congenial people in this hotel whom we much enjoy.
December 29.We walked to Piazza Quirinale this morning. From our window today we saw a large funeral procession. An array of monks dressed in brown with only cowls on their heads, came first. Next to them came a procession of priests or men dressed in black gowns and white surplices. The hearse, trimmed with flowers, followed, with four men walking on each side, each carrying lighted candies. A man carrying flowers followed the hearse. After him was a procession of people followed by two carriages. They chanted or sang as they walked.
December 30.L. is not at all well but we took a short walk to the beginning of Monte Pineio this afternoon. This morning we again saw a procession of men in red gowns and black hats and have learned that they are theological students attending the German school. We find that the different ecclesiastical schools here in Rome are represented by different styles of dress. The men dressed in long, black gowns with white gowns underneath are the Dominican fathers and those dressed in long, white gowns with black gowns underneath are the Augustinian fathers.
Now there is a fire in the reception room, but the dining room is still cold. The stove in our bedroom is not designed to throw out heat, but to retain it.
December 31.-This morning an electric tram and horse tram carried us to St. Peter’s church. There was no service but we were there at an interesting time. A beautiful and costly treasure had, apparently, just arrived and a Cardinal and other priests were there with their helpers removing it from the case. It was about three feet high and was of gold and silver with precious stones. They placed it upon the large altar in what seemed to be a satisfactory place and then put it again in the case and carried it away. Evidently it was something very precious. I heard a priest say, in English, that it was given by the ladies of Milan to St. Peter’s church.
This afternoon found us again in the Jesuit church which was beautifully illuminated. A sermon was being preached very energetically when we entered. Afterwards there was lovely music and a procession. Priests dressed in white and gold and others in white and red officiated at this benediction service. A priest took from the tabernacle the “monstrance” which he held up before the people in giving the benediction.
January 1.-New Year’s Day away from home ! Strangers in a strange land ! L. is not at all well and is unable to go out. I was exceedingly anxious to attend the service in St. Peter’s Church this afternoon and decided to go alone. It was venturesome, but L. gave me the exact fares in Italian money and I started out. I walked first to an electric tram which carried me to Piazza Venezia. There I took a horse tram the remainder of the waya long, circuitous route. The magnificent high altar at St. Peter’s was brilliantly illuminated. This is not usual, I am told. Services are mostly held at the side altars. It was another benediction service, celebrating the sixtieth anniversary of the Pope’s first mass. A Te Deum of Thanksgiving was sung. There was fine vocal music and the organ was played. The elegant gift from the ladies of Milan proved to be a Tabernacle containing a “monstrance.” A Cardinal in his scarlet robe and white cape walked up the steps to the high altar, took the “monstrance” from the Tabernacle and gave the benediction, the Cardinal’s robe being held up by the priests as he ascended the steps of the altar. Extra steps were placed before the tabernacle to enable him to reach it. The new “monstrance” glistened and quivered as the Cardinal held it upa most beautiful thing it was, its halo of gold and jewels shining in the light from many candles. I shall never forget the crowd of people in that great church. Near the altar it was a jam and I was in it. But the most wonderful sight was the astonishing number coming out of the church and filling the great broad piazza in front. I was amazed at the crowd as I stood waiting for a horse tram at some distance from the church. Already many of us had gone away but still there seemed to be an innumerable throng. I found it impossible to get a car on account of the great number of people. They rushed on board each car and filled it completely before it stopped. At last I seized hold of the circular cloak of a policeman who was on the rear platform of a car. He took pity on me and signed to me to hold on until the car stopped. He then helped me through the crowd into the car. Some one kindly gave up a seat to me, although I was willing to stand. I changed cars at Piazza Venezia without much trouble. By this time it had become dark. I reached Via Sistina safely and walked the remainder of the way.
January 2.-I am none the worse for my trip yesterday. L. is a little better, but is still weak and ill. A call this after-noon from our Holland acquaintancesMiss Visering and others.
January 4.I walked out alone three times yesterday, but today only once. I went with L. to find some fragrant white flowers on an embankment where I saw them yesterday, but could not reach them. Then we walked to a church which has a rocking tower and a so-called miraculous picture of the Virginthe Church of St. Andrea delle Fratte. “This fantastic tower rocks to and fro in a storm.” After-wards we went into the cloister garden connected with the church where there are beautiful orange and lemon trees full of golden fruit. This is the first time I have really seen them growing in the ground. I saw them in Pisa over a wall when standing on the carriage seat, but could not see the ground. We saw another funeral procession this afternoon. Five theological students in their black gowns and broad-brimmed black hats walked on each side of the hearse, each carrying a candle. Then came seven ladies dressed in black each with a candle. A large number of people followed. Men stood with bared heads when the hearse passed, covered with flowers. Drivers in showy uniforms were with the carriages. The funeral was in the church of St. Andrea delle Fratte, which we had been visiting. We followed the pro-cession into the church, but did not remain long. Afterwards we went to the post office. There in the courtyard we saw beautiful white camellias. We met Mrs. R. there. The white flowers we gathered this afternoon are white stock. The pink stock also grows wild near here.
January 5.I walked up the hill to Mrs. M.’s this morning to call upon Mrs. R. On returning home, L. and I walked on Via Sistina. After lunch we rode in a cab to the Coliseum. L. was greatly pleased to find the circle inside of the exterior arcade complete. This immense structure, the largest of the kind ever built (covering six acres) could seat nearly 1002000 spectators. Only about one-third of the original building remains. It is said that “the fetes and games for its inauguration lasted one hundred days. More than five thousand wild beasts were killed.” “Many of the palaces and churches in Rome were built from stones and material torn from the Coliseum.” We walked under the Arch of Constantine, which is near the Coliseum. This is the best preserved and most beautiful of the Roman arches. Next came the Arch of Titus, which L. was much pleased to see. This arch, erected A. D. 81 by Domitian in honor of Titus, the conqueror of Jerusalem, is much smaller than the Arch of Constantine. The bas-relief of the golden candlestick much interested L., who was surprised to find it in so prominent a place. Many heads were knocked off, which we thought a pity. We went into the church near the Arch of Titus. Then we walked along by the Roman Forum and the Arch of Septimius Severus to the Capitol.
The Piazza del Campidoglia, or Square of the Capitol, is on the famous hill where stood the old Capitol of which nothing now remains. In the centre of the Piazza is the equestrian statue of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. At the summit of the steps are the colossal statues of Castor and Pollux, each standing by a horse. On this hill stands the church of Aracoeli, the museums, municipal buildings and others.
January 6. This is Epiphany, which celebrates the Lord’s discussions with the doctors in the temple when he was twelve years old. Children are the masters for twenty-four hours, and may make all the noise they please. Last night they were shouting, blowing horns and making all sorts of noises. Today the horn-blowing continues.
L. is not so well. The dampness in the Coliseum yesterday increased his cold and the horn-blowing, which he calls “beastly,” kept him awake last night. There are services in some of the churches today. I wandered about alone this morning. Found myself in a church where a service was being held. Did not remain long. Then I walked to the Piazza di Spagna at the foot of the Pincio where there are always beautiful flowers for sale. The Pincio, a favorite park or promenade of the Romans, is a beautiful place where the wealthy and aristocratic people of Rome come in their carriages and where Queen Margherita rides on Thursday afternoons. As I have always felt much interested in her I climbed the hill from Piazza di Spagna to Monte Pincio and waited with a great crowd of people to see the Queen. I saw her three times. She may not be pretty but was quite gracious, bowing right and left to all from the carriage. A lady and gentleman accompanied her, the gentleman riding backwards facing her and the lady sitting by her side. Three men dressed in bright red trimmed with brass buttons and wearing high black silk hats were with the Queen’s carriage. The Queen wore a black velvet cloak trimmed heavily with jet and a large high bonnet, mostly purple, with purple plumes. A brass band played while the people waited. On my way home I unexpectedly met the Queen again. Passing the Church of the Trinity (Trinity de’ Monte) I entered the open door, remembering that there was to be a benediction service there this afternoon. The nuns of the convent connected with the church were singing sweetly. A cardinal was there in a scarlet robe. In the chapel where the service was held were the nunsabout twenty wearing black veils and sixty wearing white. A number of little girls were there wearing white veils. All seemed strange and interesting. Just before reaching our hotel I met two of the royal body guard, who wear tall metal helmets with black horse hair plumes. I saw today a number of the ecclesiastical costumes worn by scholars of the various seminaries, the red ones of the German students being the most striking. I have seen about a hundred of them, each carrying books, walking in a procession across our Piazza in front of our window. Each nation has its school and its costumes. The Poles have a school of their own which they attend and have their own costume. Many of the students wear black gowns, but they are distinguished from each other by different colored scarfs worn around their waists and hanging down in frontsome having red, some blue, and so on. American students, I am told, have their black gowns faced with light blue and wear red scarfs. All wear black hats with broad brims.
January 8.Mrs. R. called this morning. I walked nearly home with her to protect her from the slight rain we are having. She pointed out to me the residence of our American Ambassador. Beautiful palm trees adorn the grounds of this lovely home. We saw also the palatial home of a Roman prince, with statuary on the tops of the buildings and on a building in the rear. Besides palm trees in the open ground we see many other kinds of evergreenshuge cacti, century plants, yuccas and other interesting plants, all growing in the open ground, although Rome and New York are in about the same latitude. It is cloudy and somewhat rainy.
January 9.It gave me a pang this morning to make my first visit to the old Pantheon without my husband. I went to celebrate the anniversary of Victor Emmanuel’s death. The King and Queen were there at eight o’clock this morning to visit his tomb. I was there at ten o’clock. Soldiers and officers stood in front of the building. Two long lines of soldiers wearing green cocks’ plumes on the tops of their hats stretched themselves across the broad square on which the Pantheon stands, from one side to the other in a double row. Afterwards they fell back to make room for the Fire Brigade which came in a long procession to visit the tomb of Victor Emmanuel II. They made a fine appearance as they marched into the Pantheon wearing their showy bright helmets. There was a procession of young boys and a band which gave us fine music. The Pantheon, built B. C. 27 by M. Agrippa, is the best preserved of all the ancient buildings in Rome. A writer says. “It is most interesting that here since 1878 Victor Emmanuel II, the first King of United Italy, lies buried in the old Pantheon built by the son-hi-law of the first Roman Emperor.” Although L. is not well, this afternoon we rode in an omnibus with three horses abreast to Porta Riathe gate at which Victor Emmanuel’s troops made their first entry into the city of Rome, September 20, 1870. A column and tablets commemorating this entry are in the old wall near byone of which contains the names of all the soldiers who fell in the fight. The high solid brick city walls we saw today were built about A. D. 270. There are remains of walls in Rome built about six hundred years before Christ. Still earlier fragments are on the Pala-tine Hillthe first wall of Rome. Above the wall belonging to the beautiful grounds of the English Embassy we saw lovely salmon roses. We returned this afternoon the same way we wentin an omnibus with three horses abreast. While at Porta Ria looking at the old wall, the monuments and slabs we could see the distant mountains with snow summits. Miss Wirth and Mrs. Bragg leave tomorrow for Naples.
January 10.This morning I walked alone to the Piazza di Spagna and down the famous “Spanish Steps.” Models were waiting there. Beautiful flowers were there, too. I returned a different way to avoid the steps. An omnibus carried us this afternoon to the Piazza Colonna in the center of which is the grand Doric column erected to the memory of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (172-175 A. D.). This column, adorned by splendid bas-reliefs on a spiral band of marble, represents the remarkable victories achieved by this good Roman emperor. Including the statue of St. Paul which crowns the summit, it is about one hundred and thirty-eight feet in height. Near the column on the Corso is a tab-let to Shelley. Piazza Colonna, the center of modern Rome, has interesting palaces around it. We walked to the Corso and then went to an optician’s where my eye-glasses were supplied with a new lens. I remained longer than L. to look at lace shawls and Roman silk blankets. Before that we had been into two old churches. I walked home in-stead of returning in an omnibus, feeling depressed and anxious all the while about my husband. He was in bed on my return.
January 11.I have been sight-seeing alone today, both this morning and this afternoon, L. not feeling able to go out. This morning I looked into the stores on Piazza di Spagna, bought medicine for L. and a coral brooch. This afternoon I saw what is said to be the “oldest of things even in Rome” the Egyptian obelisk in the center of Piazza del Popolo which dates back to 1200 or 1300 years before Christ. Brought originally from Egypt by the Emperor Augustus, it might, according to Hawthorne, have been seen by the ancient Israelites. Erected first in the Circus Maximus, it was afterwards placed in Piazza del Popolo. Besides this obelisk the Piazza has fountains and statues and two large, conspicuous buildings which to all appearance are exactly alike. From this Piazza “three streets open like a fan”the central one being the Corso, which is a mile long and is the great public walking and business street of Rome.
On one side of the Piazza del Popolo are the terraces of the Pincian Hill. A winding road leads to the top of the hill, which is beautifully laid out with public drives and gardens. Here are beautiful statues, marble bas-reliefs, cypresses, pines and tropical plants. A wonderful view of the “Eternal City” lies at our feet. This is where, as I have said before, the aristocracy of Rome and the Queen drive on Thursday afternoons. I ascended this hill to the summit and saw palm trees, huge century plants and many kinds of evergreensso different from ours in Americasome not resembling evergreens, including olive trees. Pansies were in bloom and yellow flowers covered a high trellis.
Farther on to the right is the water clock at which we always look with interest. Before walking up the hill I went into the church of S. Maria del Popolo, the interior of which is like a museum of sculpture and art. In the convent connected with this church Luther lived while in Rome. Before leaving Monte Pincio I inquired of two American students the way to Piazza Barberini. This led to a pleasant conversation. They informed me that at the church of the Reparatrice the nuns sing every afternoon at half-past four. One of these young men, tall and fine looking, is from New York. L. thought I was out too late in the damp evening air although it was not dark. We have had what is said to be a “sirocco.”
January 12.To see the Jews’ Market, or Rag-fair, one must go to the Piazza della Cancelleria on Wednesdays. L. and I have been there this morning. There are all sorts of things for sale and all sorts of people there. Some were shouting at the tops of their voices. Connected with it is the Piazza Campo de’ Fiori, where there is a vegetable and fruit market. L. took a picture therehis first in Rome. I was much interested in this market, but did not dare remain long on L.’s account. He is anxious to go to Athens. Alas, how far we are from home already! I fear to go.
This afternoon I walked out by myself to look again at Roman silk blankets, lace veils, mosaic brooches and other things. I am looking in the stores for little gifts to take back to friends. It is difficult and unsatisfactory work. Bought two mosaic brooches; one Roman, the other Florentine.
January 13.Our receipt came from London today for half passage to America. We are to sail September 1st in the steamer Mobile. L. remained in again this morning while I went into the stores. This afternoon we again rode in an omnibus with three horses. They work hard going up these Roman hills. We rode to the Piazza Victor Emmanuel, which is new and large. In the center is a beautiful garden containing a picturesque ruin with an artificial arcade. Callas are growing there and very large yuccas with stumps like treesone with striped leaves. There was an evergreen with yellow tips and a tree with yellow blossoms. The ruin is an ancient water-tower of the Aqua Julia. Near by is a smaller ruin with two Egyptian marble figures in front which are grotesque in appearance. Between them is a Hebrew inscription and various mysterious characters.
January 14.The Cappella Sistina, or Sistine Chapel, occupied the morning. This hall, about 150 feet long by 50 broad, is “painted with the finest frescoes in existence.” Covering the end of the chapel on the wall back of the altar is Michael Angelo’s “Last Judgment.” Seven years were spent by the great artist on this celebrated painting, which is considered the finest in the Chapel. Christ and the Virgin, with saints, prophets and patriarchs around them, are in the upper part of the painting. Below them the Arch-angel is summoning the dead to judgmentthe redeemed on the rightthe lost on the left. In looking at the frescoes on the ceiling we used a mirror. Six windows are on each side of this long hall, which contains the Pope’s throne. On our way to the chapel through the halls of the Vatican we saw the Swiss Guard of the Pope dressed in their gay picturesque costume designed by Michael Angelo so long ago. For centuries these faithful men have served the various pontiffs. The cold hall hurried us away.
After leaving the Vatican we spent some time in St. Peter’s Church, which is always warm, although there is no fire. Everything in this church is sumptuous and in huge proportions to correspond with the great size of the building. The bronze statue of St. Peter with the big toe nearly kissed off interests everybody. This afternoon we are at home by our open fire.
January 15.Again we have been to the Vatican. A guide accompanied us with a party through some of the roomsthe library claiming the larger part of our time. The books are mostly in closed cases without glass. A few beautifully bound books are under glass. L. was much pleased to see the Vatican manuscript of the Greek Bible of the fourth centuryalso some beautifully illuminated manuscripts. The library, begun in the fifteenth century by Nicholas V, has been greatly enriched by succeeding popes and sovereigns until now it contains “an enormous collection of the most important and valuable documents in the world.”
It was interesting to see the numerous presents that have been given to different popes, including beautiful tables, urns, and other gifts. A most brilliant and wonderful thing is a stained glass window with a likeness of Pius IXa life size portrait. The ceilings are beautifully frescoed. The rooms were cold and we were glad to exchange them for the warm sunshine. As we passed through one of the long halls we looked out upon the Vatican gardens. Rows of orange trees full of oranges were there and large century plants and palm trees. After leaving the Vatican we saw lovely roses and met the soldiers of the Pope and soon the soldiers of the King of Italy.
The Vatican is said to be the largest palace in the world. Nearly all the popes have, one after another, exerted them-selves to beautify and enrich it. It contains in all a thousand rooms, including the chapels, halls, museums and library.
This afternoon I walked to the Piazza del Quirinale and to the Palace of the King, hoping to see him when he went out for his afternoon drive. After waiting some time in the cold, I went away. I did wish very much to see a live king. While waiting, I went into the church of St. Andrew of the Quirinale. Two colossal groups of men and horses and an Egyptian obelisk of red granite ornament the Piazza.
January 16.We are sorry that the old interesting story of Romulus and Remus has not a sure foundation, and that the origin of Rome is not known, but it is the same dear old city whoever founded it and whenever it began to exist.
We have this morning visited Palatine Hillthe most ancient part of Rome. Here the kings lived centuries before Christ, and here, after the long-time republic fell, the emperors built palaces the ruins of which we saw this morning. Here the Emperor Tiberius lived. His palace still stands in ruins and the apartments of his mother, Livia, still have frescoes on the wall which greatly interested us. Her dining room, bedrooms and reception rooms are still there unroofed. Lower down we saw the ancient pagan altar standing, it is supposed, in its original placea stone altar with an inscription. L. thought a translation would be, “To an unknown God.” We saw portions of the earliest wall. Palatine Hill the home of the Caesars and of many illustrious people was once enclosed by a wall with three gates. Here kings and emperors were crowned. Al-though the ministry and crucifixion of Christ occurred during the reign of Tiberius Caesar, whose ruined palace we saw, He was born during the reign of Augustus Caesar. We met Mrs. R. up there and we three wandered about among the ruins. Roses were in bloom on the grounds of a villa which is on the hill among the ruins. Wild daisies and other wild plants were blooming in uncultivated places. Enormous century plants, both green and striped, were there. Yuccas had gone to seed.
We returned here to Piazza Barberini in a cab and Mrs. R. walked the remainder of the way to her pension.
This afternoon I walked to Monte Pincio again, more this time to see the beautiful garden or park than to see the Queen, but I did see her three times. The third time we looked into each others’ faces as she passed and it was a pleasant look and smile she gave me. Dressed in an elegant cloak and a brown bonnet with high brown plumes, she made a delightful impression. Her showy equipage, including three large men in scarlet livery with big brass buttons and high black silk hats can be seen from a distanceone man sitting in front and two behind. What weary work it must be bowing and bowingalways with a smile, though sometimes a somewhat strained one.
The machinery (propelled by water) of the large high clock which stands in the middle of a pond in the park is enclosed in glass and can be easily seen. Near by were two tiny donkeys drawing a wagon on low wheels which was filled with children taking a ride for money. There was a great crowd of people in very stylish carriages, in cabs, and on foot, in the Park and on the streetsall there to see the Queen.
While waiting at Piazza Colonna this morning for an omnibus we admired the beautiful marble columns on the front of the Hotel New York; they came from Veiia city much older than Rome. We put our hands on them. Then we examined with our field glass the sculptures on the splendid column of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. In passing the old Roman Forum this morning we again saw the three arches, the temple of Saturn and other interesting things. On the way up the long stairs we looked up to the twins, Castor and Pollux. These giant statues, each standing by a horse, are exactly alike, and so also are the two horses. Before reaching the top of the stairs on the left are the wolves and a live eagle. The wolves are there because of the legend that Romulus, and his twin brother; Remus, were nursed by a she-wolf; the eagle because a metal eagle was borne as the standard of the Roman legions. Each legion, or ancient regiment, had its eagle.
January 17.The Vatican has many attractions. This morning we visited the Stanze of Raphaelfour large halls decorated by Raphael and his pupils. The frescoes on the walls and ceilings of these rooms interested usespecially the one representing the deliverance of Peter from prison by the angel. Unfortunately, the great paintings were much damaged by soldiers who used these rooms as barracks when Rome was sacked. The dampness also has more or less injured them. It is considered that here Raphael outdid him-self, as Michael Angelo did in the Sistine Chapel. We went again into this chapel. This afternoon we walked to Piazza di Spagna in search of blank books and old cheese for L., and looked at a mosaic brooch I wished to show him.
January 18.To the Vatican again. this morning to see the three great paintings of the picture galleryThe Transfiguration, The Madonna of Foligno by Raphael, and The Communion of St. Jerome by Domeniehino. These are considered by some critics to be the finest, richest, most wonderful paintings in the world. They occupy one room of good size. Then we went through other rooms to look at other paintings. One small painting of angels by Fra Angelico especially interested me, and some small ones by Raphael. Then we looked at the paintings on the ceilings in the Logge of Raphael and again at the frescoes on the walls and ceilings of the four large halls of the Stanze of Raphael. From the upper windows of the Vatican we had lovely views of the Pope’s garden in which we saw a large grotto surmounted by a huge eagle. There is a fine view of a part of the city from these windows and we could see distant mountains tipped with snow.
Afternoon.We have been to St. Peter’s again, this time to attend vespers. There was fine vocal music with organ accompaniment. The Queen and her retinue were crossing this piazza just as we were entering the door of our hotel.
Mrs. O’Connor went away last evening and left bouquets of flowers at some of our plates at dinner.
The brakes on the omnibuses and cabs on this square make a grunting sound which is amusing. And this is Rome! How hard it is to realize that it really is !
January 19.I saw the King of Italy in the distance, from our window, today. L. was sleeping and resting at the time.
The Capitol Museum, which occupied our time this morning, consists of eight rooms filled with interesting and curious things. The Cabinet of the Doves receives its name from the ancient mosaic on the wall mentioned by Pliny and found at Hadrian’s Villa which represents four doves on the edge of a fountain. On the mosaic brooch which I bought the other day is a copy of these doves. The Faun of Praxiteles, or “Marble Faun,” is a wonderful work of art. Hawthorne describes this faun, which gave his book its name. We saw the famous statue of The Dying Gladiator, found in the sixteenth century,a soldier or warrior who killed himself rather than fall into the hands of an enemy. This makes a profound impression. The exquisite statue of Venus of the Capitol we saw and enjoyed. This ancient Greek statue of Parian marble is thought to have been sculptured between two and three hundred years before Christ. It is not known where it was found. The skeleton with jewelry, the tiger, and Diana of the Ephesians interested us, and much besides which I cannot mention.
January 20.-We did this morning a wonderful thing, for us. First we climbed to the roof of St. Peter’s and walked about, enjoying the view. Two more flights of stairs found us within the dome. How pleased we were! We walked all around this monstrous cupola, touching the mosaics as we walked. How very coarse they seemed as we stood close by them. Here we looked down upon the great confessional which appeared small and insignificant. Then we started somewhat doubtfully toward the top of the great dome. Up and up and up we went until at last we reached the summit ! From this high point we looked down upon the Vatican and upon both the wild and cultivated parts of the Pope’s garden. Here was not only a fine view of the city but of the Roman Campagna and surrounding mountains with snow-capped summits. In the Pope’s gar-den were long rows of orange trees well laden with fruit, large trees and small trees, century plants, trimmed hedges, foliage beds in various shapes, the Grotto again, as well as other things. To find ourselves on the top of the great dome of the largest church in the world was very surprising. On our way down, when we were looking back and up to see where we had been, a strange gentleman who was with us remarked that we had been “high up in the world for once,” and so we thought. On reaching the roof again we went towards the front of the church to see the statues of the twelve apostles. As seen from the Piazza below these immense figures present a fine appearance, but on the roof near by they are horribly tall, disproportionate and roughly carved. L. said he “did not believe we had climbed to the top of St. Peter’s dome until we came down to the roof and looked up.” This means, of course, climbing to the top of the great central dome. The other domes look small from the ground, but on the roof they are large. I am staying in this afternoon to rest from further exertion.
A funeral procession passed our window. A hearse trimmed with flowers was preceded by a band which was playing fine music. L. said it was the handsomest one he ever saw. All were dressed alike. Showy white plumes with a touch of red bedecked their high hats. Their coats, somewhat in the form of dress coats, were trimmed with bright red. While I was writing this I heard solemn music and saw from our window another funeral procession. On the hearse was a large and beautiful wreath. The men in the band, dressed in light blue coats, were playing good music as they passed by on their way up the hill. L. has just returned from callir g on Mr. and Mrs. Platner.
January 21.-Every year on the 21st of January in the church of St. Agnes, outside the walls, takes place the ceremony of blessing the Paschal Lambs. We were unable in that great crowd of people this morning to see them blessed. Although we stood, others stood, too: and much to our disappointment the multitude of intervening heads shut off our view. We saw the Cardinal in the act of blessing something ; that was all. A procession of men carried the lambs out of the church, but not one little glimpse of those lambs did we get. Afterwards we saw the red cushions on which they were carried. The wool of these lambs, we were told, is used for the Pope’s pallium. The showy red robes worn by the Cardinal, and three or four others, were brilliant with heavy gilt trimmings and sparkled in the light of many candles. In the tribune of this church we saw mosaics which are said to be the oldest in the world. The martyrdom of St. Agnes occurred about A. D. 300, when she was only thirteen years old. Her ashes rest under the high altar. A lamb usually appears in her pictures. In the cathedral in Pisa we saw a beautiful painting of Agnes and her lamb, by Andrea del Sarto. This church of St. Agnes was built by Constantine about 325 A. D.
L. visited the American School of Classical Studies this afternoon; there he met Prof. Smith, of Harvard, the di-rector of the school, who invited us to come any Tuesday to four o’clock tea.
January 22.-This morning we “did the Vatican Museum,” as L. says. There in the Court of the Belvedere is “Apollo Belvedere.” This ancient piece of statuary of Carrara marble is said to have been found in the ruins of Antium in the fifteenth century. In the third cabinet is the famous group Laocoon and his two sons with two enormous serpents twisting themselves about the three and squeezing them or strangling them to death by order of the angry Apollo. This world-renowned group, found in Rome in 1506, was placed in the Vatican by order of Julius II. In the expressive face of Apollo Belvedere anger is plainly seen. After-wards we saw the celebrated Mercury of the Belvedere. In this Museum there is a world of other celebrated statuary which I cannot mention.
Before entering the Vatican we walked on the terrace in the Pope’s garden, by special permission. There were the same orange trees laden with fruit that we saw from the top of St. Peter’s dome. From a window in the museum we had a splendid view of the garden and of the Pope’s summer houses. After leaving the museum, just in the rear of St. Peter’s church, we saw hanging on a high wall many beautiful pink roses.
From various points since coming to Rome we have seen the Garibaldi monument, looking so high and seeming to stand almost against the sky. This afternoon a cab carried us to this high point. The air being clear we saw all Rome and the mountains with snow here and there on the summits. It is a fine, showy, equestrian monument, standing high in the air. Connected with it is a long row of marble busts. Crimson-tipped daisies were blooming in the green grass, just as our dandelions bloom with us. We enjoyed the ride, the view, the monument and flowers.
January 24.-In the church of the Capuchins are Guido’s celebrated painting of St. Michael and the Dragon and other paintings. In the basement of this church are four chambers decorated with the bones of monks who have died in the convent belonging to the church. After looking at the paintings this morning a kind monk took us down to the chambers. The bones, arranged in a variety of ways, are horrible to look at. Skeletons are standing, skeletons are sitting. Some are dressed; others are in their bare bones. A hanging lamp (it had that appearance) was suspended from the center of the ceiling. L. thought these decorations “the strangest sight he ever saw”fantastic and ghastly, yet at the same time artistic. The basement of this church con-tains a small quantity of “holy earth” from Jerusalem in which these dead monks have been buried. The bodies, al-lowed to remain ten years in this earth, were then disinterred and used for decorations. The burying and exhuming, be-gun more than three hundred years ago, has now ceased. The guide informed us that more than four thousand monks are buried there. As the royal palace was not accessible we visited the royal stables. There, in different rooms, we saw one hundred and forty horses. Each horse wore a blanket with an embroidered crown. In each stall was painted its owner’s name. The handsome state carriages were theresome of them with gold-covered wheels. Saddles and other trappings were richly and beautifully embroidered.
Yesterday afternoon we walked once more to Pincio Hill. The lovely Queen was there, looking sweet and pretty in a black hat nearly covered with light blue. The large number of carriages caused a blockade for a few moments. During that time the Queen’s carriage stood still. As L. and I passed her she gave to each of us a smile and a gracious bow. L. stood with his hat off.
Before going to Pincio Park we stopped at the Church of the Trinity but were too early for service. On returning we found ourselves too late, although we hastened back. We saw not only the water clock in the park, but also the merry-go-round with very small horses for children.
This afternoon we stood once more under the Arch of Septimius Severus and the Arch of Titus in the old Roman Forum. We walked through the Forum and on the Sacred Way. L. says we “stepped on the very stones walked over by Cicero, Virgil, Horace and Augustus.” Perhaps even the feet of Paul and Peter may have pressed these stones.
January 25.L. and I were together this morning at Piazza di Spagna while he took four pictures. Then we went to Cook’s. Afterwards I bought a string of Roman pearls and one of Venetian pearls. I also bought a blank book for the third volume of my journal, some sheet photographs, and two spoons with mosaic handles. This afternoon we attended the anniversary exercises commemorating the conversion of St. Paul at the church of St. Paul (Basilica di S. Paolo) outside the walls. We were there before the beginning of the service as we wished to walk about the interior of this magnificent church which marks the spot where the apostle is believed to have been buried. Eighty highly polished granite columns support the interior. Between the nave and transept is the triumphal arch with its mosaics which is a relic of the old St. Paul (A. D. 440) which was nearly all destroyed by fire in 1823. This was the largest church in Rome, even larger than the Basilica of St. Peter. The oldest mosaic in the present church, fourteen hundred years old, was rescued from the flames. The church contains seventy-four mosaic portraits of Popes from St. Peter to Leo XIII. In the portrait of the second Pope are two diamonds for eyes. The many bright paintings represent scenes in the life of St. Paul. Four beautiful columns of white, wavy alabaster ornament the high altar. Two altars are of green malachite, presented by Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. When the service began a procession of boys, holding candles and a large cross, entered the church and passed into the chancel where we saw them dress the chief dignitary of the occasion in his robes.
A mitre was placed upon his head. The choir, composed wholly of male voices, gave us fine music. It was very cold in the church. We remained, as long as we dared, for the sake of the music. On leaving the church we went around to the principal facade, which has seven doors, to see the very large mosaic which occupied nearly twenty years be-fore its completion in 1875. From that point we could see the walls of the city and the large tomb in the form of a pyramid of Caius Cestius. The church is considerably beyond the walls. We passed the temple of Vesta on our way to the church. Returning home in the car we met the monk who kindly conducted us about the church of the Capuchins. Ile recognized me with a pleasant smile and bow.
January 26.-Near the Royal Palace on Piazza del Quirinale is the Palace Rospigliosi. On the ceiling of the pavilion in the garden belonging to this palace is Guido Reni’s famous ” L’Aurora.” This celebrated fresco representing Aurora throwing flowers in front of Apollo’s chariot we have seen this morning. In the garden was a large spotted leaf abutilon in blossom which covered a part of the iron fence to the top. Camellias, both red and white, were blooming there, orange and lemon trees bearing their beautiful fruit, and bright red roses. We looked into the entrance of the Royal Palace, where we obtained permission one day to visit the royal stables. A man wearing a bright red coat trimmed with white and reaching to his feet, is always there. The front of this long red coat is showily ornamented with silver. In his hand he carries a silver-mounted cane which could be used as a club if necessary. Soldiers and guards were there in various costumes. Men with cocks’ plumes on their hats stood by the two sentry boxes. One of the royal body guard, wearing a cloak with a cape and a horsehair helmet, was guarding the entrance which leads into the royal gar-den. The sentries carry guns, the policemen swords.
January 27.-In the Protestant Cemetery where we have been this morning we saw the graves of Keats and Constance Fenimore Woolson and the tomb containing the dust of Shelley. L. copied the inscription on his tomb. Pink roses of different shades, and camellias were there in bud. Close by the old part of the cemetery is the tomb of Caius Cestius (Pyramide di Caio Cestio) who died B. C. 12. This tomb, enclosed in the wall of Aurelian, I have before alluded to. It is built of brick, cased with marble, and is in almost perfect condition. We met a lady in the street car who remembered meeting us in the museum in Nuremberg. She seemed pleased to see us again. With her was Capt. Kendall’s cousin. Mrs. K. went to Naples to meet him this morning. While we were walking to the cemetery from the car we looked back and saw Monte Testaccioa hill (115 feet high) from which a fine view of Rome can be obtained. A conspicuous cross crowns the summit. This hill is entirely made up of broken pieces of crockery which have been ac-cumulating there for ages. Fishing boats were on the Tiber a muddy looking river. I no longer wonder why it is called the “Yellow Tiber.” Three English ladies, Mrs. and Miss Moreton and Mrs. McKinnell, left our hotel this morning quite unexpectedly on account of the illness of Mrs. Morton’s son who is in college. They are interesting people and have been most kind and sociable. They expressed a strong desire to meet us in London next summer, kindly inviting us to their home. I wish much that we might see them again.
January 28.We wrote letters this morning and this afternoon rode in a carriage along the Appian Way, passing under the Arch of Drusus, the oldest triumphal arch in Rome, and by the St. Calixtus catacombs, the greatest in Rome, to the grand and famous tomb of Cecilia Metella. Instead of returning by Appia Nuova we drove by a long, high piece of wall. Walls were on each side of us most of the way. Now and then we could see through them. Someone told us they were not city walls but walls that were built for the protection of vineyards. I do not know. It seemed a strange ride in the country, walled in on each side. L. wishes me to write that “it is certainly the road on which St. Paul came to Rome.” This throws a halo about it. The tomb of Cecilia Metella, built 79 years before Christ, must have been standing close by the Appian Way when Paul and his friends passed on their way to the city. It was then encased with marble which has been stripped off. Luke says in the Book of Acts that the brethren came to meet Paul as far as Appii Forum and the three Taverns.
January 29.We have climbed Monte Testaccio for a view of the Roman Campagna. Notwithstanding the smoky air we could see snow on the distant mountains this morning. I picked several kinds of flowers there. The English cerntery, the pyramidal tomb of Caius Cestius, the tomb of Cecilia Metella, the ruins of the old aqueduct and the Tiber were all in view. The Roman Campagna is not flat and marshy, as we supposed, but quite rolling and free from water. Many eucalyptus trees have been planted there for their antimalverdana qualities. We meet the monks who live on the Campagna, everywhere. When riding we pass the Roman Forum and the Trajan Forum so frequently that they have become familiar objects. L. says I must rest. I obey.
Later.On the anniversary of Victor Emmanuel’s death I visited the Pantheon alone. This afternoon L. and I were there together. A chapel cut out of the original wall (twenty feet thick) contains the tomb of Victor Emmanuel. A slab in the wall indicates the place where Raphael is entombed. This temple, regarded as the most perfect of all the ancient buildings in Rome, consists of one large circular room 140 feet in diameter which receives light only from the circular opening in the center of the dome. Around this rotunda, cut in the thickness of the wall, are the altars and chapels, ornamented by pilasters and columns of marble and by a beautiful frieze of porphyry which winds itself around the room, We noticed the handsome portico, upheld by sixteen marble columns, and the original bronze doors. Fragments of the exterior marble still cling to the outer walls.
Once consecrated as a Christian church the Pantheon be-came later a fortress, but is now again a church. Afterwards, in the church of St. Mary sopra Minerva, we saw Michael Angelo’s statue of Christthe right foot being covered with a bronze sandal. The much-kissed brass toe is considerably worn. We saw a woman kissing it. Here in this church the Dominican fathers in their black and white dress were having a service all by themselves. A procession led by two men dressed wholly in white, each carrying a candle, passed from one altar or chapel to another. While we were admiring the interior of the church of St. Ignatius a body of ecclesiastical students came in and kneeled before the altars. Some were dressed in red, others in black with blue sashes and capes striped up and down with blue. After seeing the three churches, including the Pantheon, we walked to the Temple of Neptune which seems quite apart from the other Roman ruins. L. said, “if it were the only ruin here people would come to Rome to see it,” but now it is only one of many. Eleven high Corinthian columns holding up an artistic cornice are all that remain of this old Temple. In front of the church of St. Mary sopra Minerva on the Piazza della Minerva stands the smallest Egyptian obelisk in the city. It rests on the back of a marble elephant. L. says “it is the funniest thing we have seen in Rome.” In the church of St. Ignatius there are altars sumptuously decorated with gilt, bronze, precious marbles, and columns of verd antique.
February 1.On Sunday, January 30, we attended vespers in the church of the Trinity (S. Trinita de’ Monti) near the Pincio. The nuns from the convent connected with the church sang sweetly. A flight of steps leads to the church. Yesterday in the afternoon we went to the church of San Pietro in Vincoli (St. Peter in Chains) to see the celebrated statue of Moses by Michael Angelo, a wonderful work of art, all admirableexcept the horns. This church, strange as it may seem, is said to have been founded in 442 by the Empress Eudoxia as a resting place for the chains that fettered St. Peter in, prison. These are preserved in a small closet or cupboard with a handsome bronze door which is opened August 1st of each year for the exhibition of the chains.
In the Piazza di S. Giovanni in Laterano is the Scala Santatwenty-eight steps brought to Rome from Pilate’s house at Jerusalem. It is believed by many that Jesus Christ ascended and descended these stairs. No one is allowed to ascend them except on his knees. Martin Luther climbed this staircase in this humble way. We saw a number of women and one man going up on their knees. We went to the chapel above by side stairs. The tops of these marble steps are covered with wood for preservation. We went again into the church of St. John Lateran Basilica di S. Giovanni in Laterano. The ecclesiastical rank of this church is higher even than that of St. Peter’s, being the Pope’s cathedral which he takes possession of after his election. Here, as I have said before, he receives his crown and not at St. Peter’s. It contains many representations of the Pope’s crown and keys as in St. Peter’s church. Its beautiful and wonderful mosaics, its fine frescoes, its statuary, gildings and marbles make it one of the finest interiors in Rome. The exterior is remarkable for the fine facade crowned with statuary. I have not recorded our visit to the baths of Carracalla. These baths were not the largest in ancient Rome, but form the largest ruins in modern Romeexcept the Coliseum. Adorned with rich marbles and beautiful statuary, they must have been sumptuous beyond words. The museums of Rome and Naples contain many art treasures which have been found in these ruins. Here Shelley wrote “Prometheus Unbound.” The baths accommodated fifteen hundred bathers at one time. Outside, near by, is the tallest palm tree in Rome.
A walk after lunch up the Via Sistina to the Piazza di Spagna, where there were lovely, fragrant almond blossoms for sale, gave us much pleasure. After lunch we visited the church of St. Clement, perhaps the oldest church in Rome. Since 1858 a subterranean church has been discovered which was lighted today in honor of St. Ignatiusthis being the anniversary of his martyrdom when he was thrown to the lions in the Coliseum by the order of Emperor Trajan. He is supposed to be buried in this church with St. Clement, fourth Bishop of Rome. The ancient frescoes on the walls of this lower church belong to different periods. The ceiling is sustained by ancient pillars of marble. L. thinks this church of St. Clement may date back to the time of the apostles. Ignatius is known to have been acquainted with some of the apostles. St. Clement was a friend of St. PaulPhilippians 4: 3. L. has at home one of his epistles and also an epistle by St. Ignatius, who was bishop of Antioch. Beneath this subterranean church are the remains of an ancient temple.
Little bits of relics were shown us in the church this afternoon. Some thought they were tiny pieces of bone. In the upper church was a large fresco of St. Ignatius being seized by the lions. We returned home by way of the Coliseum and the Roman Forum and walked about among the ruins to find the temple of Vesta.
February 2.-Hoping to see the catacombs this morning we went to the church of St. Agnes, without the walls. A service was being held but the catacombs were closed, as it is Candlemas Day. After leaving the church we made a second visit to Monte Testaccio where we had a fine view, the air being clear. At St. Peter’s blessed candles (lighted) were given to the priests and to the choir, who formed a pro-cession and marched about the church. We are told that the Pope’s angels sang in St. Peter’s this morning. We wish we had gone there, but a lady tells us that the Pope’s angels are all men ! The streets have been crowded today on account of the holiday. There is a bread riot in Florence and many fear there will be one here. Thirty-five hundred soldiers have been called into the city. Soldiers and policemen have been everywhere. The portier at our hotel has been taken to swell the number of soldiers.
A call from Mrs. Platner this afternoon delighted me. The weather has been lovely since we came to Rome.
February 3.-We went again this morning to the church of St. Agnes to see the catacombs. Next to those of St. Calixtus these catacombs are perhaps most visited. With lighted tapers we passed silently into the dark chambers. Above us was solid rock. On the sides were walls of stone with horizontal recesses large enough to contain one and sometimes two bodies. Some of these were closed. Others were open and we could see the bones and ashes of the dead. How sad it all was ! The guide called our attention to two chapels where Christians once held their secret meetings and showed us flat lamps of stone and a chandelier, in which these lamps were used, which hung from a ceiling in one of the larger chapels. A statuette of a shepherd with a sheep on his shoulder and a petrified comb interested us. The guide kindly gave me the taper I carried into the catacombs. I shall keep it as a souvenir. We walked up the hill late in the afternoon to the King’s palace, hoping to see the King, but were disappointed.
February 4.-This is L.’s birthday. He says he is “twice six (66) years old.” I have done no sight-seeing today. Both this morning and this afternoon were spent with L. in selecting photographs.
February 5.-Near the station is a piece of Servian wall built during the time of the kings by Servius Tullius at least 500 years before Christ. The huge stones and marks of antiquity in this venerable wall are most interesting. L. picked from it a couple of small pieces this morning.
We next visited the Basilica of San Lorenzo outside the walls. This church, founded in 330 by Constantine, is one of the seven most important churches in Rome and con-tains the tomb of Pope Pius IX. Here in a magnificent chapel to which all nations have contributed are the re-mains of this much loved Pope. A monk showed us about and pointed out to us with enthusiasm the large contributions from America. This chapel is one of the most beautiful things we have seen in Rome. Near the church is the public cemetery, “the great modern burial ground of Rome,” which contains a church with a fine portico decorated with paintings. Around an open square containing beautiful shrubs are colonnades filled with fine fresco paintings over the tombs. Portraits of the dead are on the tombstones in colors. On other tombs are bas-relief portraits. Four large statues ornament the entrance to the cemetery. This finished our morning.
This afternoon we first visited Piazza Navona, which is the finest and largest in Rome excepting the very large square in front of St. Peter’s church. It contains three remarkably fine fountains. On this square is the church of St. Agnes, within the walls. After looking at the interior, a guide took us down to the subterranean chapel, which was the original church. On the walls and ceilings of this chapel are ancient frescoes in good condition. On an altar is a beautiful bas-relief of St. Agnes. According to the story she was dragged naked to this place of martyrdom where her hair grew miraculously and covered her. The bas-relief represents her as she looked after this miraculous growth of hair. The church of S. Maria della Pace came next. Here over an arch of the first chapel we found Raphael’s beautiful fresco of the Four Sybils who are listening to hear the angels announce the Savior of the world. The curtain was drawn aside for us. L. paid the wrong person by mistake. The third church we visited was St. Agostino (Augustine). We went there to see Raphael’s fresco of the prophet Isaiah. On account of the light it was indistinct. Other beautiful frescoes, however, could be seen. On the right as we entered is the beautiful statue of the Virgin and Child, by Sansovini. On these images is an astonishing array of votive offerings. Gold crowns are on their heads and jewels on their foreheads. Gold chains, watches, lockets, brace-lets and other rich jewelry nearly cover them from head to foot. The wall on both sides for some distance is filled with these costly offerings. People were continually going up to this image of the Virgin to kiss her toe, which seemed to me as much worn as St. Peter’s bronze toe in St. Peter’s church. Nearly opposite the Church of S. Antonio de’ Portoghesi, the fourth and last we entered this afternoon, is a medieval tower. On the top of this tower we could see distinctly with the help of our field glass the lantern, which holds an ever-burning lamp. Close by is an image of the Virgin and Child by the side of which this lamp always burns. Hawthorne, in his Marble Faun, calls it Hilda’s Tower, but it is now known as the Monkey’s Tower because of a legend that a baby was once carried to the summit of the tower by a monkey which afterwards returned it in safety to its parents. They in their terror had vowed to place upon the tower a shrine to the Virgin if the child should be given back to them alive.
There have been April showers today in Februarythermometer 54.
February 6.In the church of S. Maria degli Angell we were present at a service this morning. This large and magnificent church, formed out of one of the great halls of the Baths of Diocletian, was given the form of a Greek cross by Michael Angelo. In raising the pavement, to avoid dampness, the lower parts of the eight columns were buried. Diocletian was the worstand lastEmperor who persecuted the Christians.
After leaving the church we walked about among the ruins and noticed how many of them are now used for business purposes. These baths, the largest ones in ancient Rome, accommodated three thousand bathers at once. They contained not only baths, but a gymnasium, temple, theatre, library and tavern. Although the baths were so immense, the ruins are small. In the Tiberine Museum we spent a short time. The works of art collected there were found in excavating for the embankment of the Tiber, and are of much interest.
We called this evening upon the Misses Donsthe only time we have been to walk in the evening in Rome. February 8.Yesterday we called another red-letter day.
We went to Frascati. The journey (occupying only three-quarters of an hour) was much enjoyed and was our first ride by steam cars since coming to Rome. Frascati, about thirteen miles by rail from Rome, is a beautiful town on the slope of the Tusculum Mountain and has been for centuries the favorite summer home of the Roman nobility. Many of their charming villas remain. As we journeyed yesterday over the Roman Campagna, passing many aqueducts, one being very old and in ruins, we could see in the distance the snowy mountain summits. On the other side was the Appian Way. The mountains in different colorsdeep blue, purple, gray, and different shades of these colorswere beautiful with the cloud shadows resting upon them. A mysterious veil hung over them which we thought might be due to dampness from the Campagna. When we reached higher ground, after passing the aqueducts, we began to see olive trees. Oxen with monstrous horns were ploughing in the fields. As we drew near Frascati there were orchards of olive trees and vineyards and vineyards. There were wild flowers, banks covered with wild marigold blossoms, and almond trees filled with blossoms. Oh, how delighted I was ! Women were washing clothes in a large stone tank containing cold waterMonday being wash day.
Before eating our lunch we walked to the Villa Torlonia which our Marquis formerly occupied and to which he gave us a card of admission. The gardener, on a high ladder, was trimming rose vines which were climbing on a building. A beautiful dark red rose was lying on the ground. As I was picking it up he kindly gave it to me. In walking about Frascati we saw huge century plants and cactus plants. Crimson-tipped daisies grew wild in places as dandelions grow and blossom with us. Roses were .climbing thirty or forty feet on the houses and above them. Stocks in different colors were in bloom, geraniums with pink and scarlet blossoms, and our white field daisies (marguerites).
Our lunch was eaten out of doors on the porch of a cafe. We wished much to see Tusculum, which is two miles away on the summit of the mountain. This high place can only be reached by walking, or on donkeys. As I seated myself on one something seemed to give way underneath ! I concluded that either I was too heavy for the donkey or his back was too weak to hold me, and as I feared L. could not ride a donkey so far, we took a cab and rode as far as we could on our way there.
Our first stopping place was at a large Jesuit school where, from the terrace, we had a magnificent view of Rome, the Roman Campagna and the mountains, the dome of St. Peter’s church being very conspicuous. Here we saw three peacocks, two of which were white. Then we rode on further up a steep mountain side where I gathered flowersbutcher’s broom, ferns and ivy, the ivy growing wild along the roadside. At the Camaldoli, a suppressed convent, we turned our faces towards the station. On our ride a dear little bird, sitting on a tree, sang for us both going and re-turning. We passed the steep, narrow path that leads to Tusculum. At the station we started out for a walk. Two almond trees were growing in a low field. I broke off a small branch from one that was full of blossoms. L. took a picture of one of these trees and of an ox who stood for his picture but moved his head a little, as we afterwards found. We saw curious sights on our walk. There were donkeys nearly buried by their burdens ; women with loads of brush on their heads, and one woman carrying on her head a large brass kettle. Beggars followed us, much to L.’s annoyance.
Our ride home in the slow cars was most delightful. We could see everything. The setting sun lighting up the buildings and mountains opposite us gave them a lovely rose color. L. was delighted. The glow in the west was magnificent. The clouds were gorgeous. A fitting close to this red-letter day ! Our ride of two hours up the mountain on that shady road we never can forget. We could not have had it if we had gone on the donkeys, but I wished we might have climbed the hill to Tusculum.
I have spent the forenoon in the house. L. has gone ‘to the American School. He took a view of the mountains and vineyards yesterday, on our way to Frascati, from the cars. Since our return from Frascati I have tried to press some of the lovely almond blossoms, but cannot. They are pink and white, resembling both a peach and an apple blossom.
February 9.The theatre of Marcellus, on Piazza Montenara, built by Julius and Augustus Caesar, was completed B. C. 13 for dramatic purposes. It accommodated thirty thou-sand spectators and was the second permanent theatre of the kind in ancient Rome. We saw the ruins yesterday afternoon. Only two stories of arches and pillars remain. The Portico of Octavia, built by Augustus Caesar, we next visited. Here is a broad, unpaved open space reaching to the Tiber with an outdoor market. Here along this river is life among the low and lowly. Many poor peoplemen, women and childrenwere out in the open air, sitting in groups or standing. Women were sewing or knitting or embroidering. One woman wished to sell me an unfinished piece of embroidery. I could not understand a word she said. The people all stared at us as though we were objects of curiosity and they certainly were to us. Here we crossed the Tiber to the Island of St. Bartholomew by the oldest bridge remaining (built 62 B. C.) to the church of St. Bartholomew which is said to be on the site of an ancient temple. Close by is a single arch of a still older bridge, left standing as a relic. Near here is the outlet of the Cloaca Maxima, built during the time of the kings for a city drain; it is fifteen feet wide and thirty feet in height. Beginning at the Roman Forum and ending at the Tiber it probably con-ducted the larger part of the filthy water of ancient Rome to the river.
It is said that Agrippa sailed in a boat through this great subterranean passage and that Nero ordered his victims to be thrown into it. It is still used to partly drain modern Rome. As it was built more than two thousand years ago, L. was delighted to find this in such a good state of preservation. From this point we went to see the round Temple of Hercules (now church of S. Maria del Sole)’ with one of its twenty columns missing and to see the four arches (in one) of Janus Quadrifrons and the arch of Silversmiths near the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro, sometimes called church of St. George of England.
First this morning we went to the church of S. Andrea della Valle which is partly built on the ruins of the Theatre of Pompey. To this theatre, capable of holding twenty thousand people, Pompey added an enormous portico, sup-ported by one hundred columns, to shelter people from the rain. In the Curia Pompea, built in the Portico where the High Altar now is, stood the colossal statue of Pompey at the feet of which Julius Caesar was assassinated. From this historical spot we went to Palazzo Spada to see the statue itself. Beyond a courtyard belonging to this palace is a garden containing mandarin and lemon trees laden with their beautiful fruit. Afterward L. took a picture in the Jews’ market. In the Forum of Trajan this afternoon we admired the splendid Column of Trajan, erected A. D. 114. A broad strip or band of marble winds spirally around this column on which are wonderful bas-reliefs consisting of twenty-five hundred human figures, weapons of warfare, ma-chines for war, warlike symbols, and many souvenirs commemorating Trajan’s victories over the Dacians. The summit of this column, one hundred and thirty-three feet high, is crowned with a statue of St. Peter. This column is spoken of as “the most stupendous monument of ancient Rome.” I put my hands on it. Then we saw what we could of the Victor Emmanuel Memorial now being built of white marble. Afterward we visited the Temple of Mars adjoining the immense wall of the Forum of Augustus, and last, the splendid remains of the Temple of Minerva.
Menelik is the name of a large, brown dog in this hotel. A highly privileged character he is, for he comes into the dining room when we are eating and puts his head in our laps or rests his head and forepaws upon the table, expecting us to feed him. Nearly all the guests give him nuts, sugar, cake and other dainties from the table. I often think of my dear little Don. He is in his last resting place, back of the grape vines in our own garden in Cleveland.
February 10.-The church of S. Pudentiana is, according to tradition, the oldest Christian church in Rome. There we saw beautiful ancient frescoes of the fourth century this morning. In the subterranean church there are arches and frescoes of the first century. This lower church is thought to be built on the house of Pudens where Paul lodged (II Timothy 2:21). On our way down we each carried a lighted candle in a small candlestick. Not having been fully excavated it was difficult to get about. An old fresco on the wall represents Paul with Pudentiana on one side and her sister, Praxedes, on the other. From this ancient Roman church we went to the church of S. Praxedes, referred to by Browning. Then we gave a parting glance at the interior of S. Maria Maggiore.
February 11.-We both rested from sight seeing yesterday afternoon. This morning I remained at the hotel to do some necessary sewing. L. went to the Roman Forum to look over the ruins with Mr. P. This afternoon the sewing continued but I walked with L. to Piazza di Spagna, to do errands. After returning home we walked through the Corso to Piazza del Popolo and up the winding slope to Monte Pincio. L. had tickets given him today for St. Peter’s on Sunday.
I look back upon the city of Florence and long to see it again. How full of paintings and sculptures it is ! Even in the workshops we sometimes saw a fine painting or a beautiful piece of statuary.
When we were in London or Venice it seemed as though they might be the most wonderful cities in the world to visit, but now Rome, this ancient city on seven hills where Paul was imprisoned two years or more, seems more strange and interesting than any city we have visited.
February 12.-The church of St. Cecilia, on the other side of the Tiber, partly occupies the site of her house. The chapel called by her name was her bath room. After seeing the church of St. Cecilia we slowly made our way to the church of S. Maria in Trastevere. On the facade of this church are fine old mosaics belonging to the eleventh century. While walking from one church to the other this morning we were annoyed and amused nearly all the way by beggar boys who were capering and turning somersaults to get a few pennies from us.
On Pincio Hill this afternoon L. took two pictures. Here we saw the fountain of Moses and enjoyed with many others this beautiful pleasure ground of the Romans while the band played. We met Italian pilgrims who have come to attend the celebration in St. Peter’s church tomorrow morning, when we hope to have a glimpse of the Pope.
Just now a funeral procession passed consisting of many monks in their brown cloaks with hoods, and priests in various costumes, some of them carrying candles. Several men carrying the bier were followed by men with black masks over their faces, resembling the Misercordia in Florence. They chanted as they passed the hotel. There was no hearse, no flowers.
February 13.-There is only one Pope in the world and we have today seen him carried in his chair with great pomp into St. Peter’s church and heard in the distance the mass celebrating the sixtieth year of the Pope’s priesthood and the twentieth year of his pontificate. The service, announced to begin at half-past eight, did not begin until half-past nine. We waited, standing in a crowd, from a quarter past eight until the procession came. A long line of soldiers stretched across the great square in front of St. Peter’s church. Soldiers, beautifully dressed and carrying guns, stood on each side of the space left in the church for the pro-cession and the Pope, who were preceded by men carrying handsome banners. The Pope, sitting in a beautiful chair of red and gold which rested on a red-covered bier, carried by men dressed in red, wore his pontifical cap and was arrayed in a white, gold-embroidered robe. He raised his right hand in blessing as he was carried through the long line, often rising in his chair. Two huge fan-like plumes of white peacock feathers with black spots on the tips were on each side of the chair, a little back of the Pope. (The pea-cock is said to be symbolic of the immortality of the soul. There were peacocks in the mosaic floors of St. Mark’s church, Venice). In blessing the people the Pope held out only the thumb and two fingers, thus symbolizinz the Holy Trinity. The procession was a notable one. Cardinals in scarlet robes, bishops in purple robes, the Swiss Guard in their very striking costumes of black, red and yellow with their high, white-plumed hats, the men carrying showy banners, followed by the much loved Popeall these formed a wonderful procession and one not to be seen anywhere except in St. Peter’s church. Twice during the service the soldiers kneeled, bringing down the breech of their guns to the floor and holding out white gloved right hands. A gentleman who was standing near me remarked that “it was one of the greatest sights in the world to see the Pope carried in his chair.” As L. had with him a camp stool on which he sat some of the time he did not become very tired but I stood quite near the barrier and although faint and weary, and violently squeezed by the crowd, had a fine view of the procession as it passed out of the church. The crowd cheered the Pope, the ladies waving their handkerchiefs; I should have waved mine but did not. The Pope’s mild, kind eyes looked into mine as they carried him by. A gentleman gave me brandy to prevent fainting. The nobility and diplomatic corps were there today and many others in showy, brilliant costumes. We are told that twenty thousand pilgrims were there to witness the ceremony and that sixty thousand tickets were issued. This largest church in the world will accommodate, it is said, seventy thousand people. The bronze statue of St. Peter, dressed in Pontificial robes, with considerable jewelry, and wearing the triple crown (sometimes called a tiara, or a mitre), was a strange sight. One of the bronze fingers wore an enormous ring Many people stood about this sitting statue, waiting to kiss the bronze toe. I waited a few moments to see some of them go through this ceremony.
St. Peter is called the first Pope by the Catholics. What would St. Peter himself have thought of all this ! I find that I saw more today than other ladies in this hotel, but L. says I “paid for it by getting crushed.” The only thing to mar this long-to-be-remembered day is that L.’s watch was stolen from his vest pocket in the crowd, chain and all. He took his last look at 10:30. It was a much valued watch which I gave him about twenty-five years ago. Frequently he puts his hand to the pocket to take it out. It was a precious watch and we both feel very sorry indeed to lose it, but I have promised to give him another when we reach Switzerland. Meanwhile I will lend him mine. As the Pope, since losing his temporal power, remains in the Vatican, the people rarely see him. Last Monday, the twentieth anniversary of the death of the great and much loved Pope Pius IX, was celebrated in the Sistine chapel.
The Carnival has begun in Rome today. The interest in this festival has gradually declined, but it is still observed to a small extent. On our way home from St. Peter’s this morning we saw a group of dancers fantastically dressed and wearing masks. This afternoon we saw others in queer costumes who also wore masks. We were on our way to Pincio Hill for a farewell visit. Such crowds of people were there. The Italians are short and I find I am an object of curiosity to them because of my height. They stare at me when passing and then turn around and stare again. I asked (by signs) a nice looking man this afternoon if it was because I was tall. He nodded his bead in assent and immediately took off his hat and bowed politely to me. I returned the salutation.
The setting sun behind the dome of St. Peter’s this after-noon was a picture more gorgeous than any painting. I said farewell to that wonderful view from Pincio Hill. Farewell to the lovely face of the Queen whom I saw twice again, and to the beautiful park. It seems like early spring here. The flowering quince and some trees are in bloom.
February 15.Yesterday L. and I were in the stores making purchases. I bought a Roman silk blanket, some silk purses and a silk muffler. A persistent man with a coral necklace to sell followed us on the street for half a mile, more or less. I bought it. Before making these purchases, except the necklace, we visited the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina to see Guido’s masterpiece, a most wonderful painting of the crucifixion, behind the high altar. Just after we entered the church a curtain was drawn quickly before it, which obliged us, of course, to have it drawn back againfor a fee. Others were treated the same way, which amused us.
We have bought more photographs and I have packed trunks.
This morning in the Barberini Gallery we were interested in the portrait of Beatrice Cenci by Guido Reni and were pleased that, incidentally, we saw some of the Palace itself. Bees are sculptured in stone all about the Palace and on posts at the entrance.
The carnival is going on. Just now on this square were men wearing masks in a two-wheeled cart drawn by a donkeythe donkey and cart both being decorated with evergreensthe wheels being covered. The men sang and one man played a guitar. Yesterday afternoon a group of models, girls and boys, danced on the Piazza di Spagna. A gentle-man quickly took a picture of them. They rushed upon him at once for money, but he pushed them away and gave them none. These people who go about the streets dressed in a fantastic way try to do funny things to draw a crowd about them. This forenoon a group was on this square. We passed them on our way to the Barberini Palace and Gallery. They were gesturing and talking and trying to be amusing.
L. has gone to say goodbye to Prof. and Mrs. Platner. He bought this forenoon a colored picture of the Swiss Guards whose costume was designed by Michael Angelo. Although we are sorry to leave Rome and our newly formed friend-ships, yet we must say goodbye. We hope nothing will prevent our going to Naples tomorrow. Rome has been too interesting. We have worked too hard. We hope to rest in Naples.