The route leaves Manchester by the right fork at the Library, and the middle road at Manchester Center (0.5), leaving the Mettawee valley on the left. The road follows the Rutland R.R. across the town line and through the hamlets of East and North Dorset. The local white marble with faint greenish and brownish lines was used for building the Harvard Medical School, the New York Public Library, and the U.S. Senate Office. These quarries were first opened in 1785. Edwin Lefevre is one of a group of summer residents here. To the west is Mt. AEolus (3436 ft), in whose eastern side there is a series of caves with stalactites.
Continuing northward the road crosses into Rutland county and Mt. Tabor township between the steep ridges of Green Peak and Netop on the left and Peru and Mt. Tabor on the right. It bears left across the Danby line into the village of
13.5 DANBY. Alt 673 ft. Pop (twp) 1001. Rutland Co. Settled 1765. Mfg. marble, lumber, and maple sugar.
This is an important maple sugar section. There are several streams that abound in trout, and the limestone hills contain several caverns to tempt the venturesome explorer.
The route continues down the valley across the Wallingford line through South Wallingford (18.5) into
23.5 WALLINGFORD. Alt 576 ft. Pop (twp) 1719. Rutland Co. Settled 1770. Mfg. agricultural implements.
The White Rocks (marble cliffs to the east), Crystal Falls (on a small stream south of the village), and The Eyrie and The Ice Beds (craggy glens in the eastward mountains) are of interest to leisurely travelers.
At the northern end of the village the route turns left across R.R. and the river and then bears right, crossing the town-ship of Clarendon. Two miles beyond the Clarendon-Rutland town line and at the fork in the road just outside Rutland the route turns right on River St. and crosses river and R.R. into
34.5 RUTLAND. Alt 562 ft. Pop 13,546. County-seat of Rutland Co. Settled 1769. “The Marble City.” Mfg. marble, machinery, scales, dairy utensils, clay and asbestos products, and brooms.
Rutland, in the heart of the largest marble region in the world, is the second city in the State. It is a manufacturing center with a diversity of industries. The Vermont Marble Company, employing 4000 men, the Howe Scale Works, employing 650 men, and the F. R. Patch Manufacturing Company, brass founders, are leading firms.
There are golf links at the Rutland Country Club, and trout streams in the nearby hills. Killington Peak (4241 ft), to the east, is a starting point of a section of the Green Mountain Trail (p 259).
Rutland was an outpost in the Revolution, with a blockhouse called Fort Ranger on the military road from Crown Point to the Connecticut river (see Springfield, Vt., R. 10). Prom 1784 to 1804 the city was one of the capitals of the State, and the gambrel-roofed State House on West St. is one of the oldest buildings in Vermont, erected 1784. The Rutland “Herald” founded as a weekly in 1794, is still published.
The marble quarried in this region is mostly of the white variety, harder but less lustrous than the celebrated Carrara stone from Italy. This is used for building; the darker shades in blue, green, yellow, and pink are employed for ornamental purposes. Three quarters of the American marble is quarried in Rutland County.
Route 33, from Boston and Bellows Falls, and Route 44, from White River Junction and Woodstock to Lake George, meet here.
R. 5 § 5. Rutland to Burlington. 69.0 m.
This route follows the valley of Otter Creek through rolling country from the Green Mountains to Lake Champlain and Burlington. The road is a trunk line State Highway, mostly good gravel with stretches of macadam, and no heavy grades.
Leaving Rutland by Main St., the route takes the left fork two miles out of town, crossing East Creek, which flows down from Blue Ridge Mountain (3293 ft), through the village of Mendon. On the left behind Pine Hill (1445 ft) is the town of PROCTOR (pop 2756), named for the late Senator, first successful organizer of the marble industry on a large scale. This town boasts the largest single marble quarry and the greatest marble-working plant on earth, belonging to the Vermont Marble Company. Power is obtained from the 123-foot drop of Sutherland Falls. At the end of the road in Pittsford Mills (7.7) the route turns right and then left at once, entering
8.3 PITTSFORD. Alt 525 ft. Pop (twp) 2479. Settled 1769.
Marble and marble workers’ tools are the main products, and asbestos and talc are found here. The town is one of several named in honor of William Pitt, the English statesman, and at the same time commemorates the Indian ford.
There is a deep ice-cave in the eastern section of the town-ship. The Vermont State Sanatorium for the treatment of incipient tuberculosis is the gift of the late Senator Redfield Proctor, founder of the Vermont Marble Company. Stone workers were especially liable to this disease until recently, when methods were devised to keep the stone dust from the lungs.
The highway leads through Pittsford, and bears left at all forks. Otter Creek and the R.R. are about a mile to the left, and Chaffee Mountain (2506 ft) lifts its rounded summits on the right. Passing the Soldiers’ Monument on the out-skirts of Brandon on the right, the route turns left at the end of the street, then right, taking the left fork in the center of the town, and the right on Grove St. at the Stephen A. Douglas Monument.
15.8 BRANDON. Alt 416 ft. Pop 1608. Rutland Co. Settled 1772.
Mfg. marble, mineral paints, fireplaces, and butter-tubs.
The double row of shade trees on Park St. is the chief adornment of this pleasant Colonial village. Stephen A. Douglas, Lincoln’s oratorical opponent for Congress, Charles Dana, the builder of the Erie Railroad, and Frank H. Knowlton, the botanist, were born here, and another resident was Thomas Davenport, the inventor of the electric motor, who first applied electricity to the operation of railways and printing presses.
Deposits of manganese, magnetic iron, kaolin, yellow ocher, slate, fossil wood, and onyx are found here. Morgan horses and Ayrshire cattle are bred in the rich meadows of the inter-vales of the Neshobe river and Otter Creek. Owing to the mineral resources, crops, and lumber, Sir Charles Lyell, the great English geologist, said, “I have yet to see, either in Europe or America, a spot containing such a variety of unique and valuable substances placed by nature in juxtaposition.”
There are two caverns and an ice-well a mile and a half east of the village. To the east, Mt. Horrid is crossed by the Long Trail. Eight miles to the west is Sudbury, in the lake district of Vermont. The Crown Point military road is indicated by markers.
The road leads straight across the Addison County line, Leicester township, and Leicester hamlet (21.5) to Salisbury through a more open country, with the swamps and meadows of Otter Creek on the left, where the hills give way. On the right is a long ridge at the foot of which nestles Fernville, on the edge of Fern Lake, a diminutive likeness of Lake Dunmore.
Note. Just beyond the Leicester-Salisbury town line, at the three corners, a detour leads by the righthand road to Lake Dunmore, four miles long and one mile wide, said to have been christened by Lord Dunmore with a libation of wine in Colonial days. A good road has been made round the edge to the further side. The Liana Falls, a series of beautiful cascades, lead the waters of Silver Lake, 670 feet above Lake Dunmore, down to the point opposite the hotel on the lake-side. A half mile north, near the road, is Ethan Allen’s Cave, marked by an inscription, where the leader of the Green Mountain Boys, with twenty of his followers, is said to have stood off a regiment of the enemy. Another cavern, possibly used by the hero, has been recently discovered in a nearby cliff. Rattlesnake Point (1900 ft), once an Indian lookout, is a spur of Mt. Moosalamoo (2659 ft), which rises behind it to the northeast. Waramaug Wigwam. one of A. S. Gregg Clarke’s Keewaydin camps, is situated beside the lake shore. Continuing round the foot of Sunset Hill, the detour takes the left fork three quarters of a mile beyond the hotel, and rejoins the main highway a mile and a half beyond.
Just beyond the branch road to Lake Dunmore, the route takes the left fork in
23.0 SALISBURY. Alt 440 ft. Pop (twp) 693. Addison Co. Settled 1774. Named for Salisbury, Conn.
Alluvial deposits along the river and the clay and sand loams of the slopes have made farming the principal industry, with some lumbering in the woodland tracts. A monument erected by the Vermont Society of Colonial Dames marks the site of the farm of Ann Story, whose home was used by the Green Mountain Boys as a refuge. This is on the estate of the late Columbus Smith, whose large fortune, made by tracing old English estates to American heirs, was bequeathed for the sup-port of elderly people on this property.
Three miles from the village the Lake Dunmore road joins the highway from the right, with Mt. Bryant (1120 ft) paralleling the route in a long ridge. A landmark to the north is the spire of the Mead Memorial Chapel of Middlebury College.
Note. To the west is the scattered village of West Salisbury, and on the far side of Cedar Swamp the town of Cornwall, whose rich grass has made it rather noted for fine merino sheep. The Rev. Henry N. Hudson, the Shakespearean scholar, was a native of the town. The Samson Memorial, a D.A.R. chapter house (1915), contains the town library. Near the church is a Soldierse Monument with the eloquent inscription, “Cornwall remembers.” Joseph R. Andrus, a young Cornwall clergyman, led an ill-fated expedition of negroes to Africa for the American Colonization Society, and became the first American martyr to the anti-slavery cause. The cave in the river bank in which the Widow Story and her children took refuge has been marked by the D.A.R.
After crossing the town line of Middlebury and the boisterous little Middlebury river, the road bears to the left, leaving East Middlebury half a mile up the righthand road, to Bread Loaf. Following the left fork, a half mile beyond, it soon enters
33.3 MIDDLEBURY. Alt 366 ft. Pop (twp) 1866. County-seat of Addison Co. Settled 1766. Mfg. marble, lime, wood pulp, window sashes, and doors.
The village is chiefly notable as the home of Middlebury College, established 1800, one of the smaller New England institutions of learning. The drive through the college grounds from the South St. entrance to Porter Athletic Field to Pearsons Hall is nearly a mile. From the latter is a good view of both Green Mountains and Adirondacks. Recent growth has caused the erection of several new buildings, among which the Mead Memorial Chapel and the Starr Library are architecturally noteworthy. The chapel, given by Ex-governor Mead of Rutland, is of Vermont marble, in the New England meeting house style, with a portico of six massive marble columns; the graceful spire contains a chime of bells. A large dormitory and commons for men, the gift of A. Barton Hepburn of New York City, is now building. Painter Hall, the oldest college building in Vermont, is a good example of early New England college architecture.
The Sheldon Art Museum has a good collection of local antiquities. The grounds of the Addison County Agricultural Society are extensive and the buildings good.
Middlebury contains a number of fine old Colonial residences, shaded by large elms. One of the best is opposite the hand-some Congregational Church, erected by Horatio Seymour, an early U.S. Senator from Vermont. Another, opposite the High School, was the birthplace of Edward J. Phelps, U.S. Minister to England under President Cleveland. The mansion of Gamaliel Painter, principal founder of the village, is still standing opposite the Court House. From the stone bridge over the Otter is a good view of Middlebury Falls, one of the largest on the stream.
From Middlebury the lefthand road leads to Chimney Point and thence to Point Henry, N.Y. (16.o), crossing Lake Champlain by ferry (automobile 65 cts, passengers 15 cts).
Inventive genius has flourished here, though with but slight financial profit, producing a circular saw, a wool-picking machine, and methods of welding cast steel and of sawing marble and of making window sashes. Emma Willard, a pioneer in womanes higher education, established here her famous school, later moved to Troy, N.Y.
It was from the scenery and historical traditions about Middlebury that Daniel P. Thompson, when a student in Middlebury College, drew his information and inspiration for the classic Vermont story, “The Green Mountain Boys.”
Bread Loaf Mountain (3900 ft) is reached by the road up the gorge of Middlebury River, and is highly praised for its scenery. Bread Loaf Inn is near the summit of the pass over the Green Mountains, nine miles from Middlebury. The late Joseph Battell, once the largest individual land owner in Vermont, left Bread Loaf Inn and Mountain and 20,000 acres of forest land to Middlebury College, and Camels Hump to the State. He also did much to recover the all but lost strain of the Morgan horse.
Turning to the left on Washington St. and then to the right on Pleasant St., the route climbs part way up Chipman Hill, a shapely kame, from the top of which there is an extensive view of the Green Mountain range and the Adirondacks, including Mt. Marcy (5304 ft). The road dips through the hamlet of Brooksville (37.5) to cross the New Haven river. A mile and a half northwest from Middlebury village, in the town of Weybridge, is the U.S. horse breeding farm, with about seventy horses, including eight or more of the finest Morgan stallions. The farm is the gift of the late Joseph Battell. To the left of the crossroads, one mile and a half beyond Brooksville, is the Spring Grove Camp Ground, where Methodist camp-meetings are held in July and August. The route continues straight on, following the left fork, one mile further, and crossing R.R. at New Haven Junction. Five and a half miles to the east is Bristol, in the mouth of the New Haven Notch, a gap between South Mountain (2307 ft) and Hogback Mountain (2290 ft), the principal summit of the lengthy Hogback Ridge. Lincoln Mountain (4078 ft) rears its three peaks against the skyline. Bearing left at the fork one mile beyond the Junction the highway gradually swings round westward to
46.0 VERGENNES. Alt 176 ft. Pop 1483. Addison Co. Settled 1766. Mfg. lumber, flour, screw machine products, and shade rollers.
This is one of the smallest as well as one of the oldest cities in the nation. It is situated on Otter Creek at the head of navigation, on a “patch clipped from the adjoining towns.” The falls of the river here total 37 feet, providing power for this city and for Burlington. It was named, through Ethan Allen’s influence, in honor of the statesman Count Vergennes, as a compliment to France, the friend of the struggling republic. Basin Harbor, eight miles west on Lake Champlain, is a popular summer resort.
At the mouth of Otter Creek are the ruins of Fort Cassin, which was erected to protect the building of Commodore Macdonough’s fleet in 1814. Forty days from the time that the trees were standing in the forests they were launched on Lake Champlain in the form of the “Saratoga,” the Commodore’s flagship. Meanwhile the soldiers at Fort Cassin had stood off the enemy, and a few months later, on Sept. II, 1814, Macdonough defeated the enemy conclusively off Plattsburg. “This little peninsula . . . is now classic in geologic literature from the number and character of the fossils found in the rocky deposits.”
Leaving by Main St., the road crosses the city line and keeps to the left at the fork one mile and a quarter outside the city and passes through Ferrisburg (49.o), the home of Rowland Robinson, one of the best writers in the old Vermont dialect. The country is open and tillable, and a quarry of black marble lies in the northeast part of the township. The route takes the right fork one mile beyond the village and continues straight through the crossroads, leaving North Ferrisburg on the right. Half a mile beyond is the line between Addison and Chittenden Counties, formerly the boundary between Canada and New York. Upon the point across the lake is Split Rock, the ancient bounds marker separating the Mohawks and the Algonquins.
A mile to the east is Mt. Philo (1017 ft), formerly an Indian signal station and now a popular resort, with a road to the summit and a fifty-foot observation tower, from which there is a grand view of Lake Champlain, the Adirondacks, and the Green Mountains. Swinging to the right (57.0), between Pease Mountain and Jones Hill, the highway runs through a corner of the straggling hamlet of Charlotte and turns left up the slight ascent of Mutton Hill. Camels Hump (4088 ft) comes into sight in the east. The lefthand road at this point leads to the McNeil ferry, crossing Lake Champlain to Essex, N.Y. (7.o).
Note. To the west is the town of Charlotte, the site of Horsford’s Nurseries, famous for hardy plants. This is one of the finest apple regions to be found. In flavor as well as in size the fruit raised in this valley wins medals and prizes wherever it goes. One orchard of 100 acres, that of Mr. C. T. Holmes, in a recent year produced 6000 barrels which sold for more than $20,000.
62.0 SHELBURNE. Alt 159 ft. Pop (twp) 1097. Settled 1768. Shelburne Farms, Dr. W. Seward Webb’s handsome estate, west of the village, on the lake shore, is open to visitors. Byron S. Hurlbut, Dean of Harvard College, is a native of the town. The macadam road leads across the Laplatte river and along the lake shore past several summer residences. The richness of the countryside is evidenced by the dairy farms and market gardens. Two miles beyond the South Burlington line is Queen City Park (66.5), a summer settlement, to the west of which is Red Rocks, a 75-acre park of great beauty on a high, wooded bluff overlooking the lake. By the kindness of its owner, Mr. E. P. Hatch, it is open to the public, but automobiles are excluded. The Rocks are an outcrop of red sandrock such as is frequent on this shore of the lake. On the right are the links of the Waubanakee Golf Club.
69.0 BURLINGTON. Alt 208 ft (City Hall). Pop 20,468; of which one fifth is foreign-born. County-seat of Chittenden Co. Settled 1774. “The Queen City of Vermont.” Port of Entry, on Lake Champlain and the Winooski river. Mfg. planing and wood-working products, cotton and woolen goods, package dyes, patent medicines, and maple syrup and sugar. Capital, $6,460,000; Payroll, $1,337,000. Steamers daily, in season, to lake ports.
Burlington is happily situated on a hillside overlooking Champlain and the Adirondacks to the west and Mt. Mansfield and Camels Hump in the Green Mountains to the east. The largest city and manufacturing center in the State, it is likewise a wholesale distributing point and one of the chief markets for Canadian lumber. The Winooski river supplies waterpower. The Champlain Canal, connecting with the Hudson, and the Chambly Canal, with the St. Lawrence, provide water carriage for freight from both the north and south. Burlington is the home of the University of Vermont and State Agri-cultural College. The most popular sports are ice-boating and yachting. The temperate climate in the summer attracts many visitors. It is one of the cleanest and best kept cities in the country.
In City Hall Park at the corner of Main and St. Paul Sts. is the City Hall, and diagonally opposite on Church St. are the Post Office, the County Court House, and the State Laboratory of Hygiene. At the foot of College St. is the $20,000 club house of the Lake Champlain Yacht Club, the most important on the lake. Two blocks north, at the corner of St. Paul and Bank Sts., is St. Paul’s Church. At the next corner, St. Paul and Cherry Sts., is the Roman Catholic Cathedral. At the foot of Pearl St., one block further north, is the Battery Park, from which there is an excellent view of the industrial section of the city, as well as of the harbor and the western shore. It consists of nine acres on a high bluff, bought by the U.S. government in 1812 and used as a camp-ground. Some 10,000 soldiers and a battery of thirteen guns were stationed there. A tablet on a boulder near the southern entrance commemorates the repulse of the British attack, June 13, 1813. Owing to the successive British defeats on Lake Champlain, of which this was not the least important, it is said that Lake Champlain surpasses in historic importance any other body of water in the western hemisphere.
A mile down the harbor is the low-lying islet Rock Dunder, an Indian boundary mark separating the Six Nations from the Algonquins and Canadians. Legend has it that a pot-valiant Dutch commander mistook it for a French sloop-of-war and blazed away at it for some hours, and on discovering his error exclaimed, “It’s a rock, by dunder!”
Nos. 21 and 25 Pearl St. were officers’ quarters in the War of 1812, and No. 21 was later the home of Mrs. Louisa Heyde, sister of the poet Walt Whitman. On the northeast corner of Pearl St. and Elmwood Ave. is the Unitarian Church (1816). At the head of Pearl St. by the College Green is No. 2 Colchester Ave., the oldest wooden house in the city (1790); beside it is the Medical Building of the University.
The College Green, some ten acres in extent, is a part of the original gift of Ira Allen, the principal founder of the University (1791). The first brick building on the left, opposite the Green, is the President’s house, next which is the Billings Library, a Romanesque sandstone structure by Richardson, who considered it his finest work. It contains 100,000 volumes, including the remarkable Scandinavian library of the late George P. Marsh, the Norse scholar. To the east is the Museum, with a large archeological collection and the fine Cannon oriental collection, of considerable value and interest. South of the Library is Williams Science Hall, in which the Pringle herbarium of nearly 100,000 specimens is almost unique, representing all the known flora of North America. Eastward is Converse Hall, a dormitory of Rutland marble. The view from the cupola of the main building, nicknamed `Old Mill’ by the students, confirms the opinion of Edward Everett Hale, that “so far as Nature has anything to offer to the eye, I had certainly never seen, in the travels of forty years, any position chosen for a city more likely to impress a traveler as remarkable and to live always in his memory.” In front of this building, on the Green, is a statue of Lafayette by J. Q. A. Ward, in memory of his laying the cornerstone of South College, formerly on this site. Morrill Hall is the home of the Agricultural College. Grass Mount, the girls’ dormitory, on the corner of Main and Summit Sts., is the best example of Colonial architecture in the city. It was built in 1804 and for a time was the home of Governor Van Ness, later U.S. Minister to Spain. Nearby are several fraternity houses.
Southward along South Prospect St., past the University, there is a splendid outlook upon the Green Mountains from a point just beyond Cliff St. On a knoll in the foreground and slightly to the southeast is Fairholt, the summer home of Dr. Henry Holt, the New York publisher. Continuing along South Prospect St. a few hundred yards and turning to the right, the road leads to Overledge Outlook, from which the Champlain valley, 45 townships and more than 70 Adirondack peaks are visible; the highest is Mt. Tahawus (5344 ft). The return to the city follows South Willard St., the first street to the right below the Outlook, and turns left on College St., with its arching elms, passing the Carnegie Library at the corner of Winooski Ave.
Ethan Allen Park, or Indian Rock, Ethan Allen’s last home, lies one mile and a half out of town, on North Ave. Shortly beyond Battery Park are Dr. Berry’s Sanitarium, the Providence Orphan Asylum, and Lake View Cemetery. Not far to the north a road westward leads to Bishop Hopkins Hall, a school for girls, and Sunset Cliff, a high bluff with a commanding prospect of lake and countryside. Half a mile further along North Ave. is the entrance to Ethan Allen’s farm, between the road and the Winooski river at the foot of a tower-crowned cliff of red sandrock. This plot of twelve acres is preserved as a memorial to the leader of the Green Mountain Boys. Tradition makes the rock a lookout station used by the natives watching for their enemies. Fort Ethan Allen (R. 47) is five miles east.
The first settlement at Burlington was made in 1774, but the town was abandoned from early in the Revolution until after peace was declared. Its name seems to be taken from the Burling family of New York State, who were among the grantees of several Vermont towns. Much of the land in this region was owned by Ethan and Ira Allen. The former is buried in Green Mount Cemetery, on the hillcrest east of the city, overlooking the Winooski. His grave is marked by .a Tuscan shaft and a statue of the hero, erected by the State of Vermont. Through the blustering energy of these brothers, Vermont was mainly able to force her recognition as an independent State after the Revolution, partly by threatening to join Canada. Vermont remained a separate republic until 1791, so that Ethan was never a citizen of the United States (d. 1789). Ira, his brother, by far the most opulent landholder of the region, was captured and held by the British after the close of the Revolution; the charge against him being that arms which he claimed to have bought from the Prench for the use of Vermont were intended for the Irish rebels. During his captivity his property at home was seized through tax laws, and on his liberation he had to flee from imprisonment for debt in Vermont to Philadelphia, where his ungrateful commonwealth allowed him to die a pauper. In 1808 the steamboat “Vermont,” only eight months younger than the “Clermont,” was launched at Burlington and became the worldes second steam craft to win success.
The lumber market at Burlington has long been important. The Shepard & Morse Lumber Company, J. R. Booth, and the Robinson-Edwards Company are among the principal firms. Another large firm is Wells, Richardson & Co., which manufactures butter coloring and package dyes for world-wide distribution, as well as proprietary medicines, infant food, and cereal milk. The G. S. Blodgett Company makes portable ovens in larger quantities than any other American firm. Maple sugar is handled by Welch Brothers, and cotton goods are made by the Chace Mill and the Queen City Cotton Company.
LAKE CHAMPLAIN is 130 miles long, with a maximum width of 11 miles, and lies between the States of Vermont and New York, with a slight projection into Canada; at an elevation of 96 feet above sea level. The maximum depth is about 400 feet. Its outlet is the Richelieu river, flowing into the St. Lawrence. Lake George, to the south, is a tributary, and the Champlain Canal (63.0) connects it with the Hudson. Salmon, salmon-trout, and even sturgeon are found here.
Points of interest in addition to those on this route are: Ticonderoga (R. 19) and Crown Point, Prench forts seized by the British in 1759, by the Americans in 1775, and abandoned to the British again in 1777. Split Rock (p 268) and Ausable Chasm are natural curiosities, the latter a gorge of great beauty. Plattsburg and Port Kent are points of entrance to the Adirondack region. Seven miles north of Burling-ton is Malletts Bay, a landlocked inlet whose beautiful shores are the haunt of summer colonists and of several camps conducted by preparatory schools, such as Camps Iroquois and Champlain, for boys, and Camps Barnard and Winnahkee, for girls. Three miles further north is Winnisquam Bay, another charming inlet, where Camp Winnisquam is located. St. Albans Bay and Missisquoi Bay are wilder spots on the upper reaches of the lake. Nearly all these places are reached by steamboat from Burlington.