New York To New Haven

Via the GRAND CONCOURSE AND PELHAM PARKWAY, STAMFORD, and BRIDGEPORT. STATE ROAD all the way. Marked from GREENWICH to NEW HAVEN with red bands on posts and with red arrows.

This is one of the principal motor routes in America; between one and two thousand automobiles pass over it every day. It is an excellent road, stretches of block pavement, asphalt, and oiled macadam alternating. The route out of New York as here described follows recently constructed boulevards, avoiding the Old Post Road until the shore is reached at New Rochelle.

The Old Boston Post Road originally commenced at the Battery and led through the Bowery and along what is now Third Avenue to Harlem, thence through Morrisania and East Chester to New Rochelle. As this district is now practically included within the bounds of New York City there are many streets and routes laid out by which New Rochelle is to be reached, which are preferable to the rather sordid modern conditions along the Boston Road.

Note. The following is the best exit from New York to New Rochelle. Other ways are via Boston Road following more nearly the Old Post Road; also via Queensboro Bridge, Flushing, Broadway, and the North Hempstead Turnpike to Roslyn, thence along the east shore of Hempstead Harbor to Sea Cliff, thence by ferry to New Rochelle or Rye, or via the north shore road on Long Island to Port Jefferson and thence by ferry to Bridgeport.

From the Plaza, with St. Gaudens’ equestrian statue of General Sherman, 59th St. and Fifth Ave., or Columbus Circle, 59th St. and Eighth Ave., the winding driveways through Central Park are followed, keeping to the left of the Mall, to Webster’s statue. Thence, keeping to the right of the reservoir, follow Seventh Ave., a broad boulevard, to 145th St. Here turn right and cross Harlem river by Central Bridge, with a sharp left turn into Mott Ave. (5.0); leaving the statue of General Franz Sigel on left, continue on Grand Boulevard and Con-course; at 9.5 turn right into Pelham Ave., which becomes Pelham Parkway. In Poe Park, to the left from the Concourse, is the Poe Cottage, where the poet lived (1846-49).

In the struggle to live within his means and to find pure country air for his invalid wife, he moved to this little house in the Bronx. Here he wrote “Eureka,” “Annabel Lee,” and “Ulalume.” Although the picture of a raven was afterward painted on the gable end of the house, he did not write “The Raven” here, but in an old house in West 84th St. Opposite the cottage is a bust of the poet erected by the Bronx Society of Arts and Sciences.

Above is St. John’s College, R.C. The route leads across Bronx Park where are extensive zoological and botanical gardens and the old Lorillard mansion. (To the left, White Plains Road and Boston Road are alternatives to New Rochelle, the latter being the shortest route and offering an excellent surface.) The Pelham Parkway, with asphalt block pavement, is the only road in New York City restricted solely to motor travel. It turns left into the Shore Road, across the head of East Chester Bay, and so connects Bronx Park with Pelham Bay Park. The latter is the largest park in Greater New York and has over seven miles of waterfront on the Sound and Pelham Bay.

The battle of Pell’s Point in the Revolutionary War took place within the present confines of Pelham Bay Park. On the left of the highway connecting the Shore Road with City Island a large boulder bears a tablet with the following inscription: ” Gloveres Rock. . . . In memory of the 550 patriots who, led by Col. John Glover, held Gen. Howe’s Army in check at the battle of Pell’s Point, Oct. 18, 1776, thus aiding Washington in his retreat to White Plains. Fame is the perfume of heroic deeds.”

The retreat was by way of the Split Rock Road, which leaves the Shore Road to the left just beyond the City Island highway. The split rock lies west of the road to which it gives its name and attracts attention as the site of the former house of Anne Hutchinson; recalling her turbulent experiences in Boston, her expulsion from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and finally the massacre by the Indians of her-self and her family.

In the Sound, off Pelham Bay Park, are City Island, a rendezvous for yachtsmen, Travers Island, the home of the New York Athletic Club, and Glen Island, long a popular excursion resort. To the south is Fort Schuyler on Throg’s Neck; the Havemeyer and Collis P. Huntington estates are near the end of the Neck, and along the shore is the Westchester Country Club. Within the club grounds stands the famous old Ferris house, occupied by Lord Howe and his officers, one of whom rode his horse through the hall from front door to back, to prove his lord-and-mastery. Mrs. Charity Ferris is said to have pre-vented a bombardment of the house by walking up and down the veranda, and she remained at home during the British occupancy, ostensibly to cook for the officers, in reality putting valuable information into Washingtones hands by means of a little darkey whom she sent to the village on `errands.’ In the distance rises the great steel arch, joined in 1915, of the new Hell Gate railroad bridge, by which a through route from Boston to the West and South will be afforded via New York without change.

16.0 PELHAM MANOR. Pop 1115 (1915). Settled 1654.

The name recalls the Pell family whose classic mansion with its stately portico still stands in Pelham Bay Park. It was in 1654 that Thomas Pell bought from the Indians this large tract of about 9000 acres. Yet Pelham Manor has only recently begun to wear an urban air. It is a highly restricted settlement in spite of rapid development, and the houses and grounds show expenditure of great wealth. The country here is naturally a beautiful one with wooded hills, rocky ledges, and parklike areas studded with magnificent trees.

The route continues along the Shore Road across a narrow strip of Pelham Manor and into New Rochelle, curving at its end to the left into Echo Ave. and again to the right into Main St. Shortly after reaching Main St., at its junction with Huguenot St., is a monument bearing a tablet inscribed:

“This tablet is erected to indicate the `Old Post Road’ extending from New York to Boston, originally an Indian trail; opened by Royal Commission in 1672 as the road to New England. It was known in Colonial days as `The Kinges Highway.’ On that portion called Huguenot Street within this city are located the sites of the first church, school, tavern, and dwellings of the ancient village of New Rochelle. Over this road Paul Revere carried the news of the battle of Lexington and General Washington hastened to take command of the American Army at Cambridge in 1775. One of the first recognized mail routes in the colonies, its dust was hallowed by the tread of Patriotse feet all through the war of the Revolution.”

18.0 NEW ROCHELLE. Alt 72 ft. Pop 28,867 (1910), 31,758 (1915). Westchester Co. Settled 1689. Mfg. scales and delicate weighing machines, speedometers, motion picture films; printing. Ferry to Sea Cliff, L.I.

This `city in the country’ occupies a beautiful stretch of land with a perfect harbor protected by the long peninsula of Davenport Neck and is a favorite yachting center with four yacht clubs. The region is one of rapid expansion and new houses. Near the railroad is the extensive plant of the Knickerbocker Press. The Thanhouser moving picture films are made here, on Main St. near the junction of Echo Ave. The New York element for the most part occupies several residential parks, among which are Rochelle, Neptune, Beechmont, Residence, and Wykagyl.

The College of New Rochelle, for girls, is located here; the buildings cover more than a block between Castle Place and Liberty Ave. Leland Castle, the main building, was erected about 1858 by Smith Leland and is decorated with frescoes and colored marbles.

New Rochelle is a favorite haunt for Thespians. Mrs. Vernon Castle is a native, while George Randolph Chester, the creator of “Get Rich Quick Wallingford,” Eddie Foy, the Broadway comedian, and Marc Klaw, the theatrical manager, reside here. John Mason, for many years with Mrs. Fiske, and more recently a star in his own right, and also Charles H. Niehaus, the sculptor, have homes in the neighborhood. Stella Mayhew, the musical comedy star, is the honorary third assistant `Chief’ of the Fire Department.

Overlooking Echo Bay on the point by Hudson Park are many of the estates of the Iselin family, who are mainly responsible for the local interest in yachting, centering in the New Rochelle and Larchmont Yacht Clubs. They likewise provided funds for the erection of St. Gabriel’s Church, R.C. Frank X. Leyendecker, who does ” Vogue” covers and Arrow Collar ads, has a handsome estate on Mt. Tom road. Other illustrators identified with the town are Coles Phillips, designer of original magazine covers; Kemble, whose `coons’ have delighted a generation; and the late Frederick Remington, painter of cowboys and Indians, who lived in the old fashioned house in Remington Place.

A monument in Hudson Park on the waterfront marks the place where the first Huguenot settlers landed from La Rochelle, France. This bears a tablet on which are inscribed “French Huguenot Family Names identified with the History of New Rochelle prior to 1750″; many of these are borne by residents of New Rochelle today.

Some miles back from the shore, at the entrance to Wykagyl Park, on North Ave., laid out in 1693, and beyond Beechmont Park, stands the house of `Tome Paine, now the headquarters and museum of the Huguenot Association of New Rochelle. This is on his farm, presented to him in 1784 by the State of New York for his services in the cause of American liberty. It had formerly been the estate of a Tory and was therefore confiscated. Before the house stands the monument placed over his grave in 1839, surmounted by a bust. On the same land stands the first school house in the town, more than a century old.

Thomas Paine was the son of an English Quaker and came to this country in I774. In 1776 he wrote a pamphlet entitled “Common Sense,” urging the separation of the colonies from the mother country. This won him the friendship of Washington, Franklin, and other patriots. His pamphlet “The Crisis” began with the celebrated line, “These are the times that try menes souls.” Anathematized by the patriots for religious views, then liberal, which would today be considered conservative, he was refused burial in consecrated ground and was buried on his farm. William Cobbett, the English political economist, a great admirer of Paine, in 1819 caused Paine’s remains to be exhumed and carried to England. His resting place is now unknown, though some bones and clothing were brought back many years ago.

Some distance from the town center was the farm of Benjamin Fannel, or Faneuil, one of the earliest settlers. Benjamin had a brother Andrew in Boston, a bachelor and wealthy merchant, who sent word that he would like one of his numerous nephews to come and learn his business and become his heir, with the one proviso that he must remain single. The oldest son went, but disappointed his uncle by getting married. Another son, Peter, who followed, lived up to the requirement, became his unclees heir, and in due course—through thrifty rascality and trade in rum and niggers—the most wealthy, powerful, and luxurious merchant in Boston. When he was `fat and fortye he fell a victim to feminine charms, but, unsuccessful in his wooing, remained a bachelor. It was this Peter Faneuil who in 1741 gave Boston her marketplace and the Hall which became the `Cradle of Liberty.’

In 1689 Jacob Leisler, a resident of this region, became interested in the persecuted Huguenots, who had been driven out of France in 1685 by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. He bought from John Pell, the manor-lord of Pelham, 6000 acres of land, “to have and to hold . . . unto the said Jacob Leisler … forever yielding and paying unto the said John Pell, his heirs and assigns, lords of the said Manor of Pelham . . . one fat calf on every four and twentieth day of June, yearly and every year forever—if demanded.”

A bronze statue on North Ave. near the Paine House does tardy honor to Leisler, who unjustly suffered death by hanging in 1691; the attainder of treason against this victim of political jealousy was after-ward removed and his innocence declared.

The first Huguenot settlers came here in 1686 or 1687, followed by a considerable number brought from the West Indies the next year. It was still popularly known in Revolutionary times as the `French Towne.’ Dr. Dwight, writing in 1818, says: “The old French houses, long buildings of stone, of one story, with few and small windows, and high, steep roofs, are very ill-suited to the appearance of this fine ground. Nor is the church, built by the same people in the same style, at all more ornamental. There are, however, several good English houses.”

The towns of Larchmont, Mamaroneck, Rye, and Port Chester, through which the road now takes us, form practically one continuous community of New York country residents. Yacht clubs are very numerous along the shore here, taking advantage of the many harbors.

19.7 LARCHMONT. Alt 42 ft. Pop 1958 (1910), 2060 (1915). Westchester Co.

This is a modern town wellknown to yachtsmen. Its yacht club ranks high in wealth and the character of the yachts representing it and is the headquarters for social gayety.

On the right upon entering the village is the massive stone chimney of the Disbrow House, built in 1677 and destroyed by a fire about thirty years ago, in which Cooper’s hero of “The Spy,” Harvey Birch, is supposed to have been secreted.

This locality, formerly known as Munroe’s Neck, became the property in 1845 of a Mr. Collins, who called it Larchmont from a group of larch trees which he planted. Larchmont Manor is to the south of the road on a broad promontory ending in Umbrella Point on the west side of the harbor.

Heathcote Hill, to the north of the Post Road, is now covered with dwellings, but is rich in both historic and literary associations. It was named from Colonel Heathcote, who built a large brick mansion burned before the Revolution. The post-Revolutionary Heathcote Hall is now a road house.

In 1776 it was the scene of a surprise attack by a Delaware regiment upon the Queenes Rangers, a battalion of Loyalist Americans, who were worsted. This is interesting as an occasion where Americans fought Americans. The dead were buried near the hill in a common grave, “Rider and horse,—friend and foe, in one red burial blent.”

A great-grandson of Colonel Heathcote’s, Judge DeLancey, who succeeded to the estate, had two daughters, one of whom married John MacAdam, the inventor of the road which bears his name, and the other, James Fenimore Cooper.

Cooper lived for some time on the slope of the hill and here were written his first two novels, “Precaution” (1820) and “The Spy.” The scenes of the latter are almost wholly in this `Neutral Ground,’ which lay between New Rochelle and Stamford, where were respectively the lines of the British and the Continental armies.

21.5 MAMARONECK. Pop 5607 (1910), 7290 (1915). Westchester Co. Settled 1676. Mfg. raincoats.

The name is Indian and is said to mean “place of the winged heart.” The spelling has been changed seven times since the white men began to use it. The government has undertaken harbor improvements which will afford shipping facilities.

Here at `Sunny Gables,’ Blanche Ring, the popular actress, spends her leisure days. Beyond the village to the right is the classic Jay mansion with tall white columns. The Jays were Huguenots who bought this property in 1745, and here John Jay, the great statesman and jurist, spent his youth. Orienta Point, a broad peninsula projecting into the Sound, is a residential region. Here is Oaksmere, Mrs. Merrill’s School for Girls.

From the Mamaroneck river to Rye and on to Port Chester the road is paved with asphalt blocks.

25.0 RYE. Alt 49 ft. Pop 3964 (1910), 5339 (1915). Westchester Co. Settled by the Dutch 1640. Indian name Apawamis. A fashionable New York residential town. Ferry from Oakland Beach to Sea Cliff, L.I.

The village green and the historic Episcopal parish date from 1702. At the junction of the Post Road and Purchase St., near the colonial Public Library, is a building with the sign, “Village of Rye, Municipal Hall.” Originally a Post Road tavern, successively known as The Square House, Pennfield’s, and during the Revolution, Haviland’s Inn, among its guests were John Adams, on his way to attend the Continental Congress of 1774, Washington on his New England journey in 1789, who said, “We proceeded to a tavern kept by a Mrs. Haviland, at Rye, who keeps a very neat and decent inn,” and Lafayette, who slept here on his way from New York to Boston in 1824. Christ Church, established in 1695, when the Puritans of Massachusetts and New Haven looked askance at the word “Church,” has in its possession a chalice and cover of silver presented by Queen Anne. James Fenimore Cooper attended its service for a time. Rye Seminary, a boarding school for girls, is one of the oldest schools on the Connecticut shore. Rye and Oakland Beaches, on the shore near the village Park, are popular local resorts.

The Dutch bought this region from the Indians in 1640, but it remained a debatable land and some Greenwich men about 166o settled on Manursing Island. In I662, at the Restoration, they made this record of their allegiance: “That inhabitants of Minnussing Island .. . therefore doe proclayme Charles the Second ovr lawful lord and king;

We doe agree that for ovr land bought on the mayn land, called in the Indian Peningoe, and in English Biaram land, lying between the aforesaid Biaram river and the Blind Brook, bounded east and west with those two rivers, and on the north with Westchester path, and on the south with the sea, for a plantation, and the name of the towne to be called Hastings.” A most religious community at first, even before the Revolution it had fallen from grace and was a famously rakish horseracing resort.

Not until 1671 was it safe to settle on the mainland. Then Manursing Island, now a region of aristocratic homes, was practically deserted. Some of the new settlers of the mainland came from Rye, England, and named their new village “Rye within the Bounds of Hastings.”

Leaving Rye the road forks right at flagpole, crosses R.R., a mile further on leads under R.R., and left with trolley to

26.7 PORT CHESTER. Pop (Rye twp) 12,809 (1910), 15,129 (1915). Westchester Co. Settled by 1732. Mfg. bolts, nuts, gasoline motors, and wood molding.

This is the last town in New York State, the boundary line being the Byram river. It is a region of parklike expanses, great oaks, and beautiful residences, and has been a favorite ground for real estate exploiters. The Methodist Church, built of white concrete, is a remarkable edifice with a Russian cast of countenance.

In Colonial times it was known as Rye Port, as a ferry was operated here even in 1739 for service to Oyster Bay on the Long Island shore. Up to I837 it was called Saw Pit Landing, from the shipyard in one part of the settlement. During the Revolution the Tories, who were numerous in these parts, endeavored to supply New York with food at the time of the British occupation, but their attempts were brought to nothing by the activities of the `whaleboat mene from nearby rivers and brooks. The place was of little importance until the railroad was put through in I848, when there was quickly established a manufacturing interest which remains to this day.

The Byram river is the Connecticut boundary, finally established only after almost interminable disputes between the Dutch and English and later between the Colonies and the States. Tradition has it that the river was originally called `Buy-Rum’ from certain transactions between the early inhabitants and the Indians. Though from here on the country is a part of New England and under Connecticut jurisdiction it is still a region of New Yorkers. As Poultney Bigelow says: “The shore line of Connecticut is a marine esplanade of costly residences built by men from the big cities and the factories to whom the history of Connecticut is as strange as that of ancient Chaldea.”

“The Coast of Yankee Land extends from Quoddy Head to the Byram river.” As is evidenced by the narratives of the early settlers, Verazzano, Gosnold, Smith, and others, this coast was an almost continuous succession of Indian villages, thickly populated before the pestilence that swept them away just preceding the settlement. In Colonial times nearly every strategic point was the scene of fierce encounters with the Indians. Today there is an almost uninterrupted stretch of summer seaside residences and pleasure resorts, and each portion of the coast has its own particular charm. Hardly a mile of all this thousand miles of shore but is now held at real estate prices for residences and hotels. It has become the great summer refreshment place of the nation, attracting colonies from Pittsburgh, Chicago, St. Louis, and beyond.

Nearly every town has a touch of civic pride. Each has its soldiers’ monument, for every village and hamlet took its share in the Civil War as in the Revolution. And not a town but has its public library, generally memorials of some son or daughter who feels pride in the ancestral home.

Passing from New York into Connecticut we leave the region where the county is the administrative unit of local government. In New England it is the township. Thomas Anburey, an officer under General Burgoyne, coming here as a captive, notes:

“Most of the places you pass through in Connecticut are called townships, which are not regular towns as in England, but a number of houses dispersed over a large tract of ground, belonging to one corporation, that sends members to the General Assembly of the States. About the centre of these townships stands the meeting-house or church, with a few surrounding houses; sometimes the church stands singly. It is no little mortification, when fatigued, after a long day’s journey, on enquiring how far it is to such a town, to be informed you are there at present; but on enquiring for the church, or any particular tavern, you are informed it is seven or eight miles further.”

The Post Road generally. follows its oldtime route, but in portions has varied its course, particularly as bridges made possible a shorter route. Following the Indian trails it originally went around obstacles. Then the county roads were laid out more regularly on property lines. The turnpikes, beginning about 1800, were generally laid out on the geometric axiom that “a straight line is the shortest distance between two points,” and without much respect for gravity went to the very hilltops in pursuance of this principle. Within the last quarter of a century has come the state road, built by practical engineers who recognize gravitation as a human factor, and calculate grades in per cents. The present road, then, follows only in general the Indian Trail and the Post Road. From this point it is marked by red bands on poles and posts at all doubtful points.

29.7 GREENWICH. Pop (borough) 3886, (twp) 16,463. Fairfield Co., Conn. Settled 1640. Indian name Moakewego. Mfg. belting, woolens, tinners’ hardware.

This beautiful town boasts fifty millionaires and is second in wealth among all the towns of the country. It claims, too, the highest land within a mile of shore between Maine and New Jersey. Beautiful hills, wooded, rocky dells, and an interesting and diversified coast line broken by deep harbors, early made this a favorite place of residence with wealthy New Yorkers. From an old fashioned New England village with an historical background it has in fifty years developed into an up-to-date, bustling, critical city of wealth with all the appurtenances thereto. The cotton merchant who did most to promote the present prosperity of the town is generously commemorated in the Bruce mansion, Bruce Art Museum, and Bruce Memorial Park, the latter, on the shore south of the railroad, diversified with rocks, salt pools, and green lawns. In it is the rock cave known as Addington House, which during the Revolution was used as a place of concealment.

Magnificent estates crown its hills and line its shores. Belle Haven is the abode of New York brokers and bankers. Indian Harbor, Smith Cove, and Greenwich Cove are lined with residences. Field Point, well out from the shore, is perhaps the most exclusive section. Northward, Rock Ridge, Edgewood Park, and Round Hill (500 ft) are dotted with residential parks, some a thousand acres in extent.

The Post Road continues along the ridge through a residential section; the business center is on the lower slope to the south. Behind the Soldiers’ Monument is the Congregational Church, opposite which is Millbank, a large country estate, once the home of `Bill’ Tweed, the political boss of the ’60’s, now the home of Mrs. A. A. Anderson, the philanthropist.

North Street, the old `North Way,’ runs for miles along the crest of a ‘ridge and leads to some of the more magnificent estates, which rival those of Lenox and Newport. Bordering on it are the estates of Frederic W. Lincoln, Mrs. Wm. A. Evans, the house a copy of the Petit Trianon, the Zabruskie and Grey Villas, and Ely Court, all of which have a broad view over the Mianus valley. In the valley are the estates of John Flagler, Raymond Bolling, and Emil Boas. On Lake Ave., running north from the Presbyt’e’rian Church along another ridge, are the estates of Wm. Rockefeller, Percy A. Rockefeller, Isaac Phelps Stokes, John R. French, and Rosemary Hall. Six miles out is the 1200-acre estate of Edmund C. Converse, the steel magnate, which is reputed to have cost $12,000,000.

Greenwich has a number of interesting and out-of-the-ordinary private schools. The Brunswick School, for boys, is a model of its kind. The Ely School for Girls, formerly of New York, occupies the estate known as Ely Court on North St. Rosemary Hall is another girls’ school. Wabanaki, the Woodcraft School, an open-air school maintained by Mrs. Charles Tarbell Dudley on the Stokes estate, is now building a model open-air school on land recently purchased from the estate of Mr. Ernest Thompson Seton on the Round Hill Road. The Fairhope Summer School is conducted by Mrs. J. F. Johnson, who has developed novel and promising educational methods, in the Greenwich Academy building on Maple Ave.

Putnam Cottage with a cannon in front of it stands on the Post Road opposite the Episcopal Church. It is the old Knapp Tavern dating from 1731 and since 1906 in care of the D.A.R. Within are Colonial relics and portraits of `Old Put.’ Just beyond are the steps recut in the rocky slope when the D.A.R. erected a monument in 1902 to mark the site of Putnam’s leap, the whole locality being reserved as Putnam Hill Park.

It was at this tavern, the legend runs, in I779 on the morning after a dance to which he had taken pretty Mistress Bush behind him on his pillion, that Putnam was startled by the cry that the British cavalry were at hand. Dropping his razor he dashed down stairs, leaped to his horse and was away, with the enemy in hot pursuit. Hard pressed, he left the main road and raced down a breakneck rocky slope in which were cut a flight of steps. However this may be, Putnam, who was in command of the Continentals here, was surprised by Tryon’s raiders. In his own words he reports, “A detachment from the enemy,” including 1700 British regulars and Hessians, “marched from their lines for Horseneck with an intention of surprising the troops at that place and destroying the salt works.” The next day, however, Putnam hastily brought up reinforcements from Stamford, drove out the British, took thirty-five men prisoners, and captured two baggage wagons.

Cos COB (31.2), on low level land bordering the Mianus river, was formerly known as Strickland plains, and now bears the name of Chief Coscob of the Indian village, where in early times an all-day fight broke the Indian power. Up the river is the estate of Ernest Thompson Seton, which he has made into a park of remarkable beauty, and in which, as one might surmise, the animals of the wild find a pleasant home. Here too lives Julian Street, whose flitting “Travels at Home” are tinged with seriousness of insight.

At Riverside, east of the Mianus, on the railroad south of the Post Road, is Thrushwood, the home of Irving Bacheller, the novelist. The beautiful white building is the yacht club.

Sound Beach, also shoreward of the Post Road, is the Greenwich `Old Town,’ the site of the first settlement. From the railway a residential section extends south on a long J-shaped headland running two miles into the Sound, and enclosing Greenwich Cove in its sheltering arm.

Settled in 1640 from Watertown, Mass., this location had previously been the site of an important Mohican village. The English settlers grew indignant at the Puritanical government forced upon them by the New Haven colony and in 1642 placed themselves under the Dutch government of the New Netherlands. For twenty-two years Greenwich remained a Dutch patroonship and served as a Gretna Green for eloping couples as well as a harbor for refugees from the Connecticut Blue Laws.

In 1644 Captain John Underhill, an adventurer who had been banished from the Bay Colony, in the service of the Dutch, attacked the stockaded Indian village in Strickland Plain on the east side of the Mianus river. Between six hundred and a thousand braves perished. The twelve survivors captured were sold into slavery.

The bodies were heaped together and covered with rubbish, forming mounds long visible near Cos Cob, from which have been taken many arrow and javelin heads and tomahawks.

About a mile from Cos Cob on the Post Road is Laddin’s Rock Park, the private property of Mr. William L. Marks, through whose courtesy it is daily open to the public. Laddin’s Rock is a steep precipice where it is said that an old Dutchman, Cornelius Labden, coming through the woods on horseback, was pursued by three Indians on foot, and rather than be captured rode his horse at full speed over the precipice.

35.0 STAMFORD. Pop 25,128, (twp) 28,386. Fairfield Co. Settled 1641. Indian name Rippowams. Mfg. Yale locks, Blickensderfer typewriters, dye stuffs, extracts, machinery, bronzes, Pottery, chocolate, furs, camphor, pianos, insulated wire, etc. Daily steamer to New York.

Stamford is an important industrial center and has for many years been a residential town for New York business men. The residential and manufacturing centers are so far segregated that wealthy New York commuters live here for years, scarcely seeing a factory. A spacious civic center, dignified public buildings, wealthy residents, and beautiful estates make Stamford with her seven hills and her varied shore line one of the favorite places. The recent electrification of the New Haven R.R. between New York and New Haven with over eighty trains a day from the metropolis and beyond has made it even more desirable as a place of residence for New York business men. Although the city has Connecticut’s traditional diversity of industries, Stamford is in other respects more of a New York community. Atlantic Square on which face the beautiful new Town Hall and the new Federal Building has been the business center since the earliest days.

Among the artistic and literary residents are Gutzon Borglum, the sculptor; Henry Miller, the actor, whose model dairy at Sky Meadows and Sound View Farm, are famous; William Long, author of many books, who inspired from Theodore Roosevelt polemics against nature fakers; and Bliss Carman, author of “Songs from Vagabondia” and “Pipes of Pan.”

Shippan Point, extending far into the Sound, was the site of a settlement as early as 1640. It was from here that Major Benjamin Tallmadge by a night raid across the Sound surprised and captured a superior British force at Lloyds Neck, L.I. This same Tallmadge, now a Colonel, the following year caused the arrest of Major Andre. Shippan Point is today a place of beautiful shore residences, the Stamford Yacht Club, and Miss Low and Miss Heywood’s School for girls.

Toward the north the hill country, with widespreading, oaks, is thickly taken up with parklike private estates. Straw-berry Hill and Ravonah Manor to the north and Hubbard Heights to the west are favorite sections. Here among others is the intentionally uncultivated 400-acre wildwood estate of the distinguished New York surgeon and naturalist whose cross-fertilization of nut trees has produced wonderful results. The hinterland, with ridges rising to 500 feet running north and south, between which flows the Rippowam river, is one of luxurious country seats with little farmhouses and bungalows of New York folk.

The rural terrain to the north is traversed by five main highways leading off toward North Stamford and New Canaan, the Long Ridge, High Road, Newfield, Springdale, and Glen-brook Roads, two of which are traversed by auto-bus. Stamford has a number of small parks, some in the heart of the city, but its pride is Halloween Park on the seashore, which in addition to the usual park features has boat and canoe houses, bath houses, athletic fields, and tennis courts.

The segregated manufacturing center on the harbor front seems to manufacture everything from pianos and play-o-graphs to motors and mineral grinders. The chief industry is that of the Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., whose extensive works, employing 5000 hands, are south of the railroad and near the station. Here are manufactured Yale Locks of every kind from a tiny padlock to the massive bank lock; as well as builderse hardware, door closers, etc. The business, removed from Shelburne Falls (R. 15), was established in Stamford in I868 by Linus Yale, Jr., the inventor, and Henry R. Towne. Since the death of the former in 1868 the latter has controlled and directed the business and has been a pioneer in modern scientific management. Among other industries are the Blickensderfer Mfg. Co., of typewriter fame, the Atlantic Insulated Wire and Cable Company, and the Stollwerk Chocolate works, the only branch of this foreign corporation located in the U.S. The Stamford Foundry Company has been making stoves and furnaces here since 1830.

In 1640 Captain Turner of the New Haven Colony purchased the land hereabouts from the Indians for a consideration of sundry coats, hats, blankets, wampum, etc. Various deeds were duly executed and signed by the local Sagamores with their `marks.’ The first settlement was made in 1641 by a party of twenty-nine from Wethersfield, who immediately got into `hot watere with their New Haven neighbors. But they had come from a contentious community and were well able to weather the storm of protest they raised, though a few of less hardihood moved to Long Island to enjoy a more peaceful life under the Dutch rule.

In 1637 the town issued an edict against “the cursed sect of heretics risen in the world which are commonly called Quakers,” two of whom wandering through this country about this time have left us the following account of their experiences: “Came yt Evneing to a town Caled Stamford in Conacktecok Colny—it being a prety large bvt dark town; not a frind living in all yt provence;—they being all Rigid prespetrions or independents . . . so we went to an Inn. I asked ye woman of ye hows if yt she woold be willing to sufer a meeting to be in her hows. She said yes, she would not deny no sivel Company from coming to her hows . . . and therfor I sent those frinds yt war with us to go and invite ye peopel to come to our inn, for we ware of those people Caled quekers, and we had something to say to them,” but the authorities got wind of the meeting, broke it up and drove them out of town.

For more than two hundred years Stamford was hardly more than a hamlet in the midst of an agricultural district, yet played its part in local and Colonial affairs. On the memorable Dark Day, May 17, 1780, great fear fell on the Connecticut Legislature, then in session; and in anticipation of the approach of the Day of Judgment an adjournment was moved. Colonel Abraham Davenport, “a man of `stern integrity and generous benevolence,” who had for twenty-five years been in the State Legislature, arose and spoke: “I am against an adjournment. The Day of Judgment is either approaching, or it is not. If it is not, there is no cause for an adjournment. If it is, I choose to be found doing my duty. I wish, therefore, that candles may be brought.” The brave old man calmed the fears of the legislators and the session continued. Whittier made this incident the theme of a poem and the Davenport Hotel perpetuates the name.

In 1838 Stamford was a small hamlet of but 700. The era of rail-road construction a decade later was the signal for a remarkable industrial and residential development, as with many towns along this shore. The opening of the first factory of the Yale Lock Company in 8,58 marked another important step in Stamford’s industrial progress.

Stamford was formerly the home of a number prominent in the theatrical profession; among them Lester Wallack, whose place was at The Cove, A. M. Palmer, whose place was at Stillwater, and the Frohmans, on Noroton Hill.

Note. Eight miles to the north of Stamford lies the quiet village of NEW CANAAN. This is one of the modern artistic and literary shrines of Connecticut. Its village Green, old Colonial houses, meeting house steeples, and Old Mill are a lure to which many lovers of peace and quiet respond as year-round or summer residents. There is a lake, Wampanaw by name, for the `compleat angler,’ Indian Rocks have geological fascination for the would-be scientist, and a bit of bohemian flavor and democracy lends the finishing touch of romantic effect.

From the Square in Stamford the route leaves the Town Hall at the right, following the red markers. To the north on the railroad is Glenbrook, a suburb of Stamford. The road crosses the Noroton river to NOROTON (38.0), a typical New England village. Here is the Wee Barn Country Club with its famous golf course. Bordering the road is the Spring Grove’ Cemetery. The systematic arrangement of the rows of tombstones of the old soldiers at once attracts attention. The country is hilly and wooded with outcropping ledges. A half mile to the right is the old Gorham Tide Mill near the shore, to which the farmers for centuries brought their grain to be ground. Beyond is Noroton Neck, long a region of seaside residences. The houses along the road here are so evenly distributed that it is difficult to tell where one town begins and another ends.

39.5 DARIEN. Alt 66 ft. Pop (twp) 3946. Fairfield Co. Inc. 1820.

Mfg. pins, pianos, combs, keys, dairy machinery, etc.

This town boasts that for its size it is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, and the general appearance of the estates would justify the acceptance of this claim. Men of wealth make this their year-round home, and as one cleverly expresses it, “Whenever I am in town you will find me out here in the country.” Its rural inhabitants have been accustomed to pronounce the name Dairy Ann, and dairy machinery is still made in the village.

The present square-towered, porticoed Congregational Church, erected in 1837, bears on its facade a D.A.R. tablet worth reading. It tells how while services were going on in an earlier church on the site, in 1781, a band of Tories surrounded it and took fifty of the men prisoners. With their venerable pastor at their head, the prisoners were marched to boats and taken to Lloyds Neck on Long Island and thence to the Provost Prison in New York, where some of them died. The aged pastor would have shared the same fate had he not been supplied with comforts and necessaries by the mother of Washington Irving. One of the prisoners, Peter St. John, who survived the brutalities, thus relates in doggerel verse his experience of the Provost Prison:

“I must conclude that in this place We found the worst of Adames race; One of our men found, to his cost, Three pounds York money he had lost; His pockets picked, I guess before We had been there one single hour.”

The whaleboat men of this town had been active and daring during the Revolution in their attacks upon vessels in the Sound, carrying supplies to New York, and making raids on the Tories on Long Island, until they were “hoist upon their own petard” as above related.

East of Darien is the musical and literary shore colony of Tokeneke, exploited by a corporation, which now includes in its representative membership such wellknown people as David Bispham, the singer, Richard Le Gallienne, the poet, a retired evangelist of world fame, a Broadway matinee idol, playwrights, and a sprinkling of men whose hobby is business.

The countryside from the top of the rocky peninsula to the hills of the hinterland is dotted with homes. To the south of the Post Road nearer the shore is Rowayton, prettily situated at the head of Five Mile river. Here it is alleged some artists have sequestered themselves.

43.5 NORWALK. Pop 24,211. Fairfield Co. Settled 1650. Mfg. corsets, shirts, silks, hats, laces, automobile tires, air compressors, and builders’ hardware.

The attractive city of Norwalk is the first of the larger Connecticut towns on this road to present the characteristic New England appearance, with the three white meeting houses on the elm-shaded Green. The city has many fine specimens of old Colonial domestic architecture, among which is the Royal James Inn, with a dignified portico and lofty wing. Formerly there were as many Norwalks as Oranges or Newtons, but in 1913 the present municipality was formed, which combined not only Norwalk, South, East, and West, but Rowayton and Winnipauk. It is a public-spirited community with a live Chamber of Commerce which heralds it as `The Gem City’ . and as `A City of Parts.’

Coming into the town the Hospital is on the right. At the foot of the hill on West Ave., opposite the State Armory is a beautiful drinking fountain inscribed by the D.A.R. to Nathan Hale, with his last words, “I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” In the disguise of a Dutch school master he took a boat from Norwalk across to Long Island, the enemy’s country, on the mission which resulted in his capture and death.

The route follows the trolley past the Library and the old Norwalk Hotel, built in 1775, a famous hostelry in the old coaching days, when it was known as the Connecticut House. Leaving the center of Norwalk our road crosses the Norwalk river and ascends the Mill Hill. On the right is the Town Hall, built in 1835, a squat, red brick building with a cupola, which looks like a little old school house, and at the next turn is the Green mentioned above.

North of Norwalk the artists have congregated at Silver Mine, and here lives Solon Borglum, the sculptor, brother of the Stamford artist. On the outskirts of the town is the Hillside School for Girls, some of the buildings of which have been used for school purposes for a half-century.

South Norwalk, south of the Post Road on the main line of the railroad, on the good harbor furnished by the broad estuary of the Norwalk river, is naturally a modern industrial center, whose products show a most surprising variety. The secretary of the Chamber of Commerce gives first on the list the interesting combination of “oysters, corsets, and air compressors.” The nationally known Cluett-Peabody Company has a plant here. Here, too, is the R. & G. Company, known to the readers of women’s magazines. The Norwalk Iron Works Company makes air and gas compressors. Oystering is an industry of some importance. The harbor and the coast

off shore are studded with islands which add to its beauty. Toward the Sound there are beautiful residential sections.

Roton Point, formerly an excursion resort, is a beautiful spot with rocky headlands and sandy beaches. Here is the Norwalk

Yacht Club, and further out on Wilson’s Point is the Knob Outing Club. Overlooking the Sound is the half-timber Elizabethan summer residence of James A. Farrell, president of the Steel Trust. The so-called Yankee Doodle House, constructed 1763, was the home of the Revolutionary Colonel Thomas Fitch, locally known as `Yankee Doodle’ Fitch, who is said to have incited the famous verses.

East Norwalk is on the eastern shore of the harbor, with a yacht club, country club, and several residential sections of its own. The Roger Ludlow monument marks the spot where Ludlow made the treaty with the Indians for the purchase of the territory of Norwalk.

The name “Norwalk” is derived from Norowake or Norwaake, an Indian chief, though another and more fanciful explanation is that the original purchase of land from the Indians extended a dayes north walk from the salt water. Roger Ludlow negotiated this bargain, the `price’ including the usual assortment of coats, hatchets, hoes, also “10 seizers, 10 juseharps, and some 3 kettles of six hands about.” There were some Huguenots among the first settlers; in a record pre-served of the date of 1678 there is evidence of both a desire for education and a commendable thrift, and “it was voted and agreed to bier a scole master to teach all the childring in the towne to learn to Reade and write; & that Mr. Cornish shall be hierd for that service & the townsmen are to bier him upon as reasonable terms as they can.”

It was at the mouth of the Norwalk river that Tryon landed his forces July 10, 1779, a few days after the destruction of Fairfield. A tablet on a hilltop north of the town marks the spot where according to tradition Tryon watched the burning of Norwalk.

Washington has left us a description of the Norwalk of his time in his diary: “At Norwalk … we made a halt to feed our Horses. To the lower end of this town Sea Vessels come, and at the other end are Mills, Stores, and an Episcopal and Presbiterian Church. . . . The superb Landscape, however, which is to be seen from the meeting house of the latter is a rich regalia. The Destructive evidences of British cruelty are yet visible both in Norwalk and Fairfield, as there are the chimneys of many burnt houses standing in them yet. The principal export … is Horses and Cattle . . . salted Beef and Port-Lumber and Indian Corn to the West Indies.”

The route leaves Norwalk by Westport Ave. and follows the red markers past the peat swamp, where in the early days robbers lurked to rob the mail coaches. Just within the Westport town line, near the Country Club, an old well marks the site where stood the tavern kept by Major Ozias Marvin, a Revolutionary officer. The present house is owned and occupied by his great-great-grandson, John J. Marvin 2d. On Nov. 11, 1789, Washington noted in his diary: “lodged at a Maj. Marvin’s, 9 miles farther; which is not a good house, though the people of it were disposed to do all they could to accommodate me.”

The Saugatuck river is navigable for a greater distance than any other stream in Fairfield County, and as there was no fordable place nearer the coast than Westport, the Post Road here runs well inland. The old post road leaves the present road through the village at Nash’s Corner, and continues along King’s Highway to the upper bridge which spans the Old Ford where the British crossed on their way to sack Danbury in ‘1777.

46.8 WESTPORT. Pop (twp) 4259. Fairfield Co. Settled 1645. Mfg. cotton twine, buttons, mattresses, starch, and embalming fluid.

This oldtime, thriving village wears an air of quiet leisure and has been chosen as a place of residence by a colony of well-known artists and literary folk. The old farms in the surrounding country are rapidly becoming country homes of taste and culture. The former sea trade ceased with the War of 1812, from which time date its cotton and hat industries. In 1805 John Scribner here set up the first carding machine operated in America.

Opposite Ludlow Road stands the Stringham House, one of the oldest and the most charming houses of Westport. Following the Washington route arrows, we come to the ivy-covered Trinity Church. To the left is the simple and unique Colonial house of Ebenezer Jesup, one of the men who en-gaged in sea trade prior to 1812. The Jesup-Sherwood Memorial Library is the gift of the late Morris K. Jesup, the patron of natural history and numerous geographical expeditions, as a memorial to his two grandfathers.

At Compo St., opposite the Westport Sanitarium, stands a granite boulder marking the site of the first skirmish between the English and the Colonists after Tryon landed his forces. A bronze statue of the Minute Man, the work of the sculptor Daniel Webster, marks the place where the Colonists lay in wait for the English on their return from Danbury, and the guns at the point on the beach mark the British place of landing. The bathing pavilion, owned by the town, is the center of amusement and town pride. Along the shore roads, as on Compo St., are beautiful gardens, and notably the estates of Mr. Lewis, Mr. Schleat, and the perfect example of formal Colonial architecture owned by Mr. William P. Eno. Here also are the Bedford estates. Across the broad lawns before Mrs. Bedford’s mansion are elaborate sunken gardens.

From Westport the route continues inland. On the left is the tapering spire of the old colonial Congregational Church at Green’s Farms, a village which bears the name of one of the first settlers. Across Sasco Brook, the boundary between Westport and Southport, to the right, opposite the Pequot Poultry Farm, stands a granite monument backed by willows, commemorating the great swamp fight of 1637 in which the remnant of the Pequots who had fled from Mystic were surrounded by Captain John Mason and his men in what he calls a “hideous swamp,” since drained. Twenty were killed, but one hundred and eighty, mostly women and children, were captured and divided between the Massachusetts and Connecticut men as slaves, many being sold in the West Indies.

SOUTHPORT (51.0) is the business center and most settled portion of the town of Fairfield. Sasco Hill, named from the Indian Sasqua, overlooks the harbor. The Pequot Library on the Marquand estate, the gift of Mrs. Elbert Munroe, is particularly rich in rare Americana. The Wakeman Memorial, endowed by Miss Frances Wakeman, is a handsome building with quarters for several boys’ and girls’ clubs.

52.5 FAIRFIELD. Pop (twp) 6134. County-seat of Fairfield Co. Settled 1639. Indian name Uncoa. Mfg. chemicals, wire, rubber goods, aluminum, automobile lamps, and flat silver and tin ware.

Fairfield, named from its fair fields, in Colonial times one of the four largest towns in Connecticut, is today a beautiful residential town. In the village and on the hills are many handsome and elaborate estates of wealthy New York families.

Near the station the route turns to the right, passing the Memorial Library and a stone fountain. Just north of the station is the old barrel-roofed stone powder house. Beyond the Library is a stone set by “David Barlow, cidevant, farmer, 1791.” In front of the Town Hall stands a boulder with a bronze tablet recording Tryon’s Raid, July 7, 1779, when the Hessian Yagers returning from the pillage of New Haven burned two hundred houses.

The Town Green is the center today as in the past. Fronting it stands the old Sun Tavern, where Washington `baited his horsese and tarried all night Oct. 16, I789, on his Grand Tour. On the Green itself stands the ancient whipping post, now serving as a bulletin board. The town records show how one and another offender was sentenced to be whipped twenty or thirty lashes, or to be confined in the stocks three hours a day. Unseemly carriage, profanation of the Sabbath, witch work, and unlicensed use of tobacco, as well as other crimes, were expiated. On the west side of the Green was a pond in which Mercy Disbrow and Elizabeth Clausen, reputed witches, were thrust to determine whether or not they were daughters of Belial. The records tell us “that they buoyed up like a cork,” positive evidence to the onlookers that they had sold themselves to the devil.

Benson’s Tavern of stage coach days, now a private house, still stands on the main street. This was a favorite stop. The stage changed horses at Stamford but at Fairfield was supper. Famous travelers have sat about its board,—Macready, Edwin Booth, and Fanny Kemble. Souvenirs of distinguished men decorate the walls of the dining room and in the living room is Peter Parley’s chair.

The ivy-mantled, gothic St. Paul’s Church now stands where the gaol stood until the burning of the town. The Norman Church opposite is on the site of the original log meeting house of 1640 and five successive edifices.

Southeast of the Green on the road to the beach lies the ancient God’s-Acre, entered by a beautiful stone lich-gate. The oldest stone bears the date of 1687. The Silliman monument commemorates the distinguished family which in successive generations gave many sons to public and university life. Here, too, are buried members of the Burr family.

The present fine old Burr mansion on the main street is the successor of the one burned by the drunken troops in spite of Tryon’s written protection in the Sack of 1779. The present homestead, by John Hancock’s request, was patterned somewhat on the Hancock mansion at Boston, since torn down.

In Colonial days the Burr family was most notable in these parts. The Burr mansion in its palmy days was the center of hospitality and about it cluster the local traditions. It was built about 1700 by Chief Justice Peter Burr, one of the earliest graduates of Harvard, and stood somewhat back from the village main street under a canopy of elms, a manorial structure. Its old fashioned garden with an ancient arbor-vita hedge, dates to Colonial days.

Washington, Franklin, Lafayette, John and Samuel Adams, and Dr. Dwight were frequent guests, and here Trumbull and Copley painted full length portraits, still preserved, of their host and hostess. After the Battle of Lexington in June, 1775, Governor John Hancock, fleeing from British justice, followed his affianced bride, Dorothy Quincy, the celebrated belle of Boston, who sought refuge in the house of Thaddeus Burr. The gossips say that while John was in Philadelphia attending the Continental Congress, Aaron Burr, a handsome youth of twenty, came to visit his cousin Thaddeus. There at once began a flirtation which greatly disturbed Hancock’s peace of mind, as his letters plainly show. But for the intervention of Aunt Lydia Hancock it might have resulted disastrously, but Aaron was packed off to Litchfield to enter the law school of Judge Reeve (R. 6). John and Dorothy were later married here in the old house.

On the Post Road is the Sherman House, the spacious residence of Judge Roger M. Sherman, nephew of the Roger who signed the Declaration of Independence. He willed it to the Prime Ancient Society for a parsonage. It is known as The House of Sixty Closets, the title given a story about the portraits of the Judge and his wife which still hang in the east drawing room. Today it is the home of the Rev. Frank S. Child, the loyal historian of the countryside.

There are many fine old estates in Fairfield and the neighbor-hood. Mailands, situated on Osborn Hill, an old signal station of the Indians, is the extensive country seat of Mr. Oliver G. Jennings. Verna Farm is the country place of Hon. Lloyd C. Griscom, former Ambassador to Italy. Round Hill, another Indian signal station, is a commanding eminence belonging to Mr. Frederick Sturges. Sunnie Holme is the country estate of Miss Annie B. Jennings, and has gardens that are among the most beautiful and elaborate in the State. The house of Hermann Hagedorn, a poet and dramatist taking honorable place among the younger writers, is at Sunnytop Farm, a hill not far distant from the place where the first President Dwight wrote poetry, cultivated strawberries, and conducted his remarkable school. Waldstein is the home of Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright, President of the State Audubon Society, and author of numerous works of fiction and books on nature.

A generous friend has recently given to the State Audubon Society a Bird Sanctuary,—some fifteen acres of diversified, well-wooded park land situated on the edge of the village, commanding a fine view of the Sound. Near the entrance is the rustic cottage of the curator and opposite is the quaint museum filled with several hundred specimens of our native birds. The Fairfield Historical Society has an interesting collection of antiquities and rare books in its hall. It has published some fifteen brochures on local history.

Fairfield Beach, extending for three miles, is one of the most attractive along this coast. Near the beach is the Fairfield Fresh Air Home, which cares for more than one hundred and twenty-five city children each summer season. Here, too, is the Gould Vacation Home for self-supporting women, a beautiful Colonial estate endowed by the Gould sisters. Grover’s Hill projects boldly into the sea on the east of Ash Creek. This was the site of a fort in Revolutionary times; today it is a private estate, Shoonhoven Park, containing some of the finest country residences in Connecticut. Ash Creek in Colonial days had several tide mills upon it. Here it was the British landed the night they captured General Silliman, whose house was on Holland Hill. To the east is Black Rock Harbor.

In 1777 nine Tories crossed the Sound by boat and captured the Continental General Silliman and his son, who was then quartered in his own house, and took them to Oyster Bay. In retaliation a few months later a band of twenty-five Southport men crossed to Oyster Bay and seized the Tory Judge Jones and a young man named Hewlett, while a dance was going on in the Judgees house, and brought them back as prisoners, where Mrs. Silliman entertained them. Later the four prisoners were exchanged.

In the suburbs of Bridgeport on Fairfield Ave. at the corner of Brewster St. is a milestone inscribed “XXM to NH,” which being interpreted indicates that it is twenty miles to New Haven. Just beyond is the Protestant Orphan Asylum and the Bur-roughs Home for Widows.

Where the road passes under the railway occurred the wreck of the Federal Express, fourteen killed and forty injured, July 11, 1911. In the short stretch of track between here and North Haven the New Haven Road has succeeded in wrecking five trains in five years, with a loss of fifty-seven lives and two hundred injured.

Passing under the railway we come to the winter quarters of the Barnum and Bailey circus, now owned by the Ringling Brothers, which occupy several acres. The winter quarters of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show were formerly somewhere within the city limits. The old house of P. T. Barnum, America’s greatest showman, is almost opposite Clinton Ave. In front of the house stands a statue of a sea god.

Barnum made his great hit in 1849 when he paid $150,000 to Jenny Lind for 150 concerts, a figure that was something stupendous for the time. Another of his stars, General Tom Thumb, was born in Bridge-port in 1832 and weighed nine pounds at birth, but after his seventh month he ceased to grow, and remained through life but twenty-eight inches high. In 1863 he married Miss Lavinia Warren of Middleboro, Massachusetts, who, like himself, was a dwarf (R. 31). Barnum starred General and Mrs. Tom Thumb through Europe, where they were received by “all the crowned heads.” One of the Ringlings married a daughter of Barnum and inherited the circus business.

Barnum was a great benefactor of Bridgeport and through the city we find evidence of it, Barnum Public School, the Barnum Building, and Barnum Ave., so that Bridgeport is a sort of Barnum Museum itself. Barnum Institute is the head-quarters of the Historical and Scientific Society, contains collections, and is used for lectures. But his greatest gift was Seaside Park, a beautiful tract on the shore, in which there is, properly enough, a statue of the great circus man himself.

At the corner of Park Ave. opposite St. John’s Episcopal Church is a beautiful memorial fountain to Nathaniel Wheeler, the originator of the Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine.

57.0 BRIDGEPORT. Pop 102,054 (1910); more than one third foreign-born, Irish, Hungarian, German, English. One of the County-seats of Fairfield Co. Settled 1659. Indian name Pequonnock. Port of entry. Mfg. firearms, munitions, submarines, machine shop products, general hardware, corsets, graphophones, electric fixtures, brass and bronze goods, sewing machines, automobiles, and typewriters. Value of Product (1909), $28,909,000; 1915, ??? Steamboat daily for New York, and ferry to Port Jefferson, L.I.

Bridgeport today brings to mind war,—munitions, shells, rifles, and an ever-increasing number of Bridgeport millionaires, who will take the shine all off Pittsburgh. Bridgeport has gone sky-high on war orders. In November, 1915, it was reported that Bridgeport had $200,000,000 of war orders, with 25,000 operatives at work making munitions. In six months the population is said to have increased from 102,000 to 150,000. The Remington Arms-Union Metallic Cartridge Company in the latter part of 1915 erected a mile and a quarter of new factory buildings; and ‘zoo buildings for two, four, and six families, at a cost of $8,000,000. The Lake Torpedo Boat Company at the same time was expanding and to get space dredged the channel of Johnsons Creek for the length of 1000 feet and width of 200 feet and filled in the marsh for building sites. All the factories were running twenty-four hours on eight-hour shifts, for the strikes of the operatives had won them ‘the eight-hour day. Even the corset factories were running over time to supply the domestic trade, for the supply from France had been cut off. The city fathers were worried at providing for this rapid growth. A new city plan had just been developed, but the rapid and unexpected development of the northeastern part of the city had put the carefully devised plan of John Nolen all out of key.

Before the world went insane, Bridgeport was a manufacturing city of great promise, with rather more than the usual Connecticut variety of industries. It had already justified the title of `The Industrial Capital of Connecticut,’ now it claims to be `The Essen of America.’ How much of the mushroom growth of 1915 will prove to be permanent and beneficial remains to be seen.

Bridgeport is a port of entry with a daily steamboat line to New York, as well as a good coasting trade. The harbor is formed by the estuary of the Pequonnock river and the inlet of Yellow Mill Pond. Between these lies the peninsula of East Bridgeport, the site of many factories. The manufacturing belt also extends westward along the railroad, behind which are, successively, the wholesale, the retail, and the residential districts of the city.

Old Mill Green, once the village center, is two miles up the river, east of the ford where the Post Road used to cross. It is a widened section of the Post Road, Boston Ave., at East Main St. At its eastern end is the immense Remington Arms plant. Near here are a few relics of the old hamlet of pre-Revolutionary days. In the park is one of the milestones which marked the King’s Highway of 1687, the Old Post Road, now North and Boston Aves., which was laid out on the line of the old Indian trail. At the corner of East Main St. and Boston Ave. there is found still standing an old house built in 1700 by William Pixley. Six generations of the name occupied the house which was Harpin’s Tavern and about 1840 became the residence of Rev. William Silliman.

`The Park City’ is Bridgeport’s middle name. It is a center for athletic and outdoor organizations; among these are the Bridgeport Yacht Club, overlooking Black Rock Harbor; the Park City Yacht Club, on Yellow Mill Harbor; the Rooftree Club, at Lordship Manor; the Sea Side Club; the Brooklawn Country Club; there is also an eighteen-hole golf course at Beardsley Park, north of the city. Seaside Park, to the west of the harbor entrance, contains several monuments and is bordered by some of the city’s handsomest residences.

When the first settlers came here the Peguesset Indians of this locality had a village of more than a hundred wigwams on Golden Hill, which is now the best residential section of Bridgeport. In 1685 portions of the towns of Fairfield and Stratford, on either side of the Pequonnock river, were united to form a new community. In 1694 the little settlement was known as Stratfield, the combination of Stratford and Fairfield, portions of which were separated to form the new town. During the Revolutionary period, Bridgeport, like its neighbor New Haven, was a privateering center.

Modern Bridgeport dates its career from the bridging of the Pequonnock river in 1798. The Post Office was immediately opened and the mail from New York was brought in the four-horse coach which arrived at- the close of the day when it set out from New York. In 1790 it had a population of one hundred and ten.

The industries of Bridgeport began with the Salt Works in 1800, and after the opening of the railroad in 1849 its growth as an industrial center was rapid. The sewing machine factories of Elias Howe and of Wheeler and Wilson were among the first manufacturing plants opened here, the former dating from I863. This still continues to be one of the principal industries of Bridgeport, and today the Singer Company has one of its great plants here. In the manufacture of corsets Bridgeport leads the country, more than 10,000 dozen a week being made by Warner Brothers alone. The Lake Torpedo Boat Company and the Remington Arms-Union Metallic Cartridge Company are the leading war babies. Locomobiles, Columbia Graphophones, Ives mechanical toys, and the electrical specialties of the Bryant and the Harvey Hubbell Companies are other interesting products. Automobile specialties are turned out in great variety by several factories. This is the home of the Weed Anti-Skids and the Raybestos brake-linings.

The oyster industry of Bridgeport is represented by three of the largest propagators and growers in the world. The steady growth of the industry dates from half a century ago when oysters were first planted in the Gut outside Bridgeport Harbor. Connecticut was one of the first States to encourage the cultivation of oysters through private ownership of the grounds; property in these underwater flats is recorded and taxes levied as with dry land real estate. Along this coast are natural oyster beds which have been extended by planting. In 1902, 70,000 acres were under cultivation, 65,000 of which were privately planted and 5000 natural beds. Large fleets of boats are kept busy working and watching the grounds, and contribute greatly to the life and importance of Bridgeport Harbor. In the Bridgeport and Stratford `setting groundse the `spat,’ or free-swimming young oysters, which come largely from Chesapeake Bay, are planted on the flats previously strewn with oyster shells to which they become attached, or `set.’ In about two years they have grown to market size. They are then placed in brackish water to bleach and bloat to satisfy the depraved taste of most consumers, who donet know the joy of `eating eem alive.’

60.5 STRATFORD. Pop 5712. Fairfield Co. Settled 1639. Indian name Cupheag.

This quiet country village at the mouth of the Housatonic river is in striking contrast to its busy neighbor, Bridgeport. Its name was bestowed upon it by emigrants from Shakespeare’s birthplace. Many of the houses and magnificent elms antedate the Revolution.

The Blakeman Memorial Library, as the tablet states, commemorates Rev. Adam Blakeman and Deacon John Birdseye, who established the first settlement. The Weatoque Country Club, a recent organization with a fine new club house, offers the usual non-resident short term membership to visitors. There is a nine-hole golf course, tennis, etc. The Housatonic and the Pootatuc Yacht Clubs also add to Stratford’s gayety.

Inland on the rising ground of Putney Heights and Oronoque, and also on Stratford Point, which extends into the Sound, are

summer homes of people both of moderate resources and of extreme wealth. There are pleasant drives up the Housatonic and into the hinterland beyond the Oronoque.

In 1651 the witch epidemic reached here with the result that poor ‘Goody Basset was hanged. Dr. Samuel Johnson, namesake of his celebrated uncle, was the first Episcopal rector here, from 1723 until 1754, when he resigned to become the first President of Kinges, now Columbia, College. He lies buried here at Christ Church. During the Revolution the church was closed, as the minister insisted on reading the usual prayer for the king after the Battle of Lexington and dismissed his flock when they protested.

Two of the most famous post riders were Stratford men,—Andrew, who died at the age of 89, and Ebenezer Hurd, who for fifty-six years before the Revolution rode fortnightly from New York to Saybrook, never missing a trip.

Between Stratford and Milford are several little inns scattered along the road. The milestones were set by order of Postmaster-general Benjamin Franklin. Close to Milford, on the left of the road, is a large rock, on which is incised the word “Liberty,” and the date, “1766.” This was done by Peter Pierrott, a Huguenot inhabitant of the town. The boulder was popularly known as `Hog Rock,e from the circumstances narrated in the following lines from an old ditty:

“Once four young men upon ye rock Sate down at shuffie board one daye; When ye Deuill appearde in shape of a hogg, And frightened ym so they scampered awaye And left Olde Nick to finish ye playe.”

65.0 MILFORD. Pop (twp) 4366 (summer 13,000). New Haven Co. Settled 1639. Indian name Wopowage. Mfg. straw hats, vacuum cleaners, gas meters, car trimmings, and auto windshields; oysters and garden seeds.

The long elm-shaded Green bordering on the Post Road for half a mile, the Colonial meeting houses with old homesteads clustered about, and the mossy stone dam of the mill pond render Milford inimitably quaint. The name is derived from

the town in England whence the early settlers came, and also from the ford across the Wepawaug where the first grist mill in the New Haven Colony, erected in 1639, was operated for more than 250 years.

The first bridge was built in 164o on the site of the stone Memorial Bridge with the tower, built in 1889 to commemorate the town’s 25oth anniversary. It is a counterpart of one in Milford, England. The knocker on the tower door is from the house on whose porch, in 1770, George Whitefield preached; and the tablet at the foot of the tower is in memory of Governor Robert Treat. The present mill at the end of the bridge, built to honor the 275th anniversary, in 1914, is on the site of the original Fowler’s Mill established in 1639, and the millstone by it is reputed to be the first used there, roughly dressed by the miller to serve until another came from England. The old homestead on the island by the mill, until recently in possession of a descendant of the first miller, William Fowler, is now owned by Simon Lake.

The first tavern, built here in 1644, is still standing on the Old Post Road just west of the First Church. In 1789 Washington stopped here and wrote in his diary:

“From the Housatonic ferry it is about 3 miles to Milford… . In this place there is but one Church, or in other words, but one steeple—but there are Grist and Saw Mills, and a hand-some Cascade over the Tumbling dam.”

A little way down Wharf St. to the right is the Stephen Stow House, built about 1670 by Major Samuel Eells. In 1777 the Stows cared for 250 sick American soldiers who were brought from a British prison ship in New York Harbor and suddenly cast upon the Milford shore. In spite of watchful nursing forty-six of the unfortunates died, as well as Mr. Stow, and were buried in a common grave in the old grave-yard, where a shaft of Portland freestone commemorates them. Pond House, erected by George Clark, the first to be built outside the Palisades and dating from 1700, is on the Bridgeport Turnpike.

Simon Lake, the inventor of the even keel submersible sub-marine, lives at Milford. His “Argonaut,” built in 1897, was the first craft of this kind to navigate the open sea success-fully. He has been retained by the governments of England, Germany, and Russia to design and supervise the construction of many submarines, and is a member of many foreign societies of naval architects as well as of American naval associations. A considerable number of the U.S. submarines have been built by him at his works in Bridgeport.

Wilcox Park, formerly known as Harbor Woods, is a part of the large Indian grant containing some of the springs which the red men valued so highly.

At the harbor mouth is Fort Trumbull Beach where formerly stood an earthwork of the Revolutionary period. On its site is The Elms, the residence of Thomas J. Falls. On the westerly side of the harbor is the Milford Yacht Club House. The shipbuilding industry flourished until the harbor silted up in the beginning of the last century. The oyster beds have afforded a profitable business since 1752, and the Sealshipt Oyster Company, which has wharves and packing house here, is reputed a profitable stock selling scheme. The eighteen miles of shore is a succession of beaches and popular summer resorts.

Half a mile off shore is Charles Island, where that most noted of buccaneers, Captain Kidd, is reported to have buried at least part of his treasure. As it is readily accessible at low tide by means of a sand bar, hosts of people spend a holiday on the island, some digging vainly for pieces of eight, but most of them more joyously engaged.

The settlers of Milford came from New Haven in I639 by the Indian trails, driving their cattle before them, while their other possessions were carried around by boat. The land was purchased from the Indians for the customary barter of coats, blankets, hatchets, hoes, knives, mirrors, and a kettle, in return for which the Indians gave the English a turf and a twig, seizin in token of the surrender of the soil and all that grew thereon.

The settlers built a community house facing the Green, where they all dwelt for a time. Their earliest records of 1640 contain the following resolutions, put forth with Puritan seriousness, unconscious of their sublime egotism:

“Voted, That the earth is the Lordes, and the fulness thereof. Voted, That the earth is given to the saints.

Voted, That we are the saints.”

There was Puritan seriousness, too, in their observance of the law. In I649 Mr. Birdseye was discovered in the shameful act of kissing his ‘wife on Sunday, which was in violation of the law. He was tried on Monday and sentenced to the whipping post. But he escaped from the town officers, ran to the Housatonic, swam across, and from the Stratford side shook his fists at his pursuers. His wife followed later, and they lived ever after in Stratford, where they begot numerous descendants.

Goffe and Whalley, the regicides, were concealed at Milford at two separate times. They were two of the judges who signed the death warrant of Charles I and both were related to Cromwell, in whose army they had held important positions. In 1660, after the restoration of the House of Stuart to the English throne, they fled to Boston and thence to New Haven, whither they were pursued by the royal messengers. Thanks to the sympathy of the Deputy-governor Leete and the New Haven magistrates, they were concealed in the old mill at Milford for two days until a place, now known as the Judgese Cave, was prepared for them at West Rock, where they remained three months (p 93). As winter approached they were again taken to Milford and lived two years in secrecy in a cellar, dug out of a solid rock, of the Tompkins House, which formerly stood on the southeast corner of the Central School grounds. The house still exists but has been moved from its former site (see Hadley).

The mills of Milford in Colonial times were of considerable importance; there were three mill dams which supplied valuable power. The town owned large flocks of sheep and for nearly a century paid. part of their expenses with the profits. Milford also carried on coast trade and commerce until 1821. Straw hats, oysters, gas meters, vacuum cleaners, hardware, and seeds are Milfordes products today. Recently it has become the distributing center for the Gulf Refining Company.

Note. On leaving Milford the road straight ahead at the end of the Park leads to New Haven along the shore via Woodmont and Savin Rock, the latter a summer amusement park with a White City. Continuing on New Haven Ave., over the Memorial Bridge we turn into Gulf St. South, skirting the shore, where there is an excellent view of the bay and Charles Island. The residence of Mr. Clark Wilcox is at the left, and The Piers, the residence of Mr. Nicholas Pond, is in front. Turning east over a fair country road the route enters Bay View, where is Schermerhorn House, a fresh-air resort maintained by Trinity Church of New York. At the sign-board “Morningside” the road turns sharp right and follows the shore along Far View Beach, Bruwell’s Beach, Debonair Beach, to Merrimans, passing on the right the beautiful Italian villa of Mr. Poll and a succession of cottages, and continues through Woodmont and Savin Rock.

The direct route to New Haven via the State Road turns left at the end of the Park in Milford with red markers through the township of Orange, this portion of which is known as West Haven. West Rock soon comes in sight, which, like East Rock, on the other side of New Haven, is a conspicuous landmark for miles along the coast. The summits of both of these rocks have been made into parks.

Both East and West Rocks are abrupt cliff-like terminations of lava sheets, which in the case of West Rock continues northward as a long ridge. Adriaen Block, the Dutch navigator, sailing along this coast from New Amsterdam in 1614, first noted these landmarks, and be-cause of their reddish appearance he named the place- Rodenberg, or Red Hill.

These lava sheets are intrusive; that is, as molten lava they flowed in between layers of sandstone when at a depth below the surface (p 24). Inspection of the West Rock cliff above and below shows, in places, the hard baked sandstone indurated by the great heat. The trap of these rocks is very dense, of the kind known to petrographers as dolorite. Its thickness is about 200 ft. On the face of the cliff the columnar structure is plainly visible, due to the contraction of the central portions of the lava sheet after the upper and lower portions had solidified.

West Rock (405 ft) affords a fine view of the Sound and the country to the west of New Haven. Here is the so-called `Judges’ Cave,’ a cluster of rocks in which Goffe and Whalley were concealed in 1661. The most direct road to the Judges’ Cave lies from the center of the city by Whalley Ave. to Westville, thence past Springside Home to the Park. Whalley Ave., Dixwell Ave., and Goffe St., all leading from Broadway toward West Rock and the Judges’ Cave, are named after the three regicides. An excellent road with a gentle slope winds through the Park to the cave and precipice. On the face of one of the great boulders forming the cave is a bronze tablet bearing the inscription:

“Here May 15, 1661, and for some weeks thereafter Edward Whalley and his son-in-law, William Goffe, members of Parliament, General officers in the army of the Commonwealth and signers of the death warrant of King Charles I, found shelter and concealment from the officers of the Crown after the restoration.

“Opposition to tyrants is obedience to God.”

Marvelwood, south of West Rock, is a fine wooded estate of 600 acres belonging to Mr. J. M. Griest. The group of hem-locks to the left of the house were set out by Donald G. Mitchell, known to the world as `Ik Marvel,’ the gentle author of “Dream Life” and “Reveries of a Bachelor.” His residence, Edge-wood, is not far away, on Forest St., Westville. Edgewood Park, at the end of Edgewood Ave., is a pleasant spot between West Rock and Yale Athletic Field, with elaborate gardens.

Nearer New Haven, on the left, is Yale Athletic Field, the huge Yale Bowl, with a seating capacity for 67,000 spectators. Its external appearance is not so impressive as would be expected from these figures, owing to its being excavated from or half sunk in the ground. The true size is only apparent when it is seen from within. Yale had the Bowl ready for the dedication in November, 1914, when Harvard supplied `punch’ (Score 36-o). On October 21 an historical pageant will be held here to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the coming of Yale to New Haven.

We enter New Haven by way of Davenport and College Sts. At the corner of the Green stands the Hotel Taft opposite the entrance to Yale College Grounds.

74.5 NEW HAVEN. Pop 133,605 (1910); one fourth foreign-born, Irish, Italian, German, Russian, Swede. County-seat of New Haven Co. Settled 1638. Indian name Quinnipiac. Port of Entry. Seat of Yale University. 800 manufacturing establishments: Value of Product, $51,000,000; Payroll, $16,000,000. Mfg. firearms and ammunition, rubber goods, hardware, clocks, plumbers’ supplies, tooth paste, corsets, underwear, automobile bodies and carriages, auto specialties, machine shop products, wire, etc. Steamships to New York; ferry to Port Jeferson, L.I.

New Haven, the seat of Yale University and a great industrial center, second only to Bridgeport in the value of its factory products, has long been the principal city of Connecticut, though Hartford rivals it closely in population and Bridgeport with its recent mushroom growth has perhaps surpassed it. It is built on a level sandy plain between East Rock and West Rock, which stand up like sentinels on either side, giving a setting unique among American cities. The city lies about four miles from the Sound, and its harbor has a twenty-foot channel with considerable coastwise commerce. The head offices of the New Haven railroad are located here, six divisions of which radiate north, east, and west.

The city centers at the Green, altogether its most striking and interesting physical feature. Aside from Boston Common it presents the most characteristic New England scene to be found in any large city. The Green is a sixteen-acre square, around which was the original settlement. Until recently it was shaded by such magnificent elms as gave New Haven the name of `The Elm City.’ The elms have now largely disappeared, killed by elm-leaf beetles and neglect. On the Green stand the three oldest churches of the community, built about one hundred years ago, interesting types of New England meeting house architecture. Here on a Sunday morning the gathering of the people to the three churches while the bells are `ringing them in’ still presents the oldtime New England scene. The pulpits of two of these churches have since

Colonial times been influential in religious thought in New England. The streets of the original city immediately surrounding the Green are laid out in squares, and from this central portion radiate the streets to the outlying districts. West of the Green are the principal buildings of Yale University. South and east are the more important civic buildings and the business district.

The Green has been the historical center of New Haven’s life and history, the heart of New Haven, for nearly 300 years. As soon as the forest was cleared, the punishment of offenders was attended to. With Puritan conscientiousness and rigor the whipping post and the stocks, the jail and the court house were first built. The year after their landing the first meeting house was erected, where the flagpole now stands, and then the school house. Planned as a market place the Green was for 200 years used as a Common for pasturing cattle. With the first enthusiastic flush of the Revolution the Liberty Pole was set up here in 1774, and when the news of Lexington arrived Benedict Arnold, a druggist of the town, drew up his little army and demanded of the Royal authorities the keys of the powder house. Here Washington on his way to take command of the Continental Army at Cambridge reviewed the patriotic company of Yale students, and Lafayette reviewed the State Militia.

The three churches, the United, Center, and Trinity, now standing on the Green were erected in the year 1814. The Center Church, modeled after St. Martins-in-the-Fields in London, was erected on the site of the burial ground. In the crypt beneath (open to the public on Saturday afternoons and at other times by applying to the sexton) are 140 tombstones dated before I707. The other tombstones were removed to Grove Street Cemetery. Just back of Center Church is a monument to John Dixwell, the regicide, who for many years lived in New Haven and was buried on the Green. At the southeast corner of the Green is the Bennett Fountain, designed after the monument of Lysicrates at Athens.

In the northwest part of the Green opposite the present Phelps Gateway and between Center and Trinity Churches stood until 1889 the State House, a Greek-temple-like structure erected in 1763, which shared with Hartford for more than a hundred years the primacy of the State. “It was standing when I was in college and makes the background for the first picture of my class,” says Ex-president Taft.

To the south of the Green on Church St. is the new million-dollar Federal Building of classic architecture. At the north-east corner of Elm and Church Sts. is the new Court House, another example of a Roman temple. On Church St., on the way up from the railway station, we pass the Connecticut Savings Institution, still a third modern Roman temple. The first impression the visitor today gets of New Haven is that the gods have showered temples, gleaming white and brand-new, upon this ancient academic and industrial city. They are, however, excellent examples of their type.

North of the Green the most prominent building is the new Ives Memorial Library, a distinguish& example of modern Colonial architecture. It is the design of Mr. Cass Gilbert, and the gift of Mrs. Mary Ives. On Elm St. facing the Green is the Pierpont House, 1764, used as a British hospital in 1779. Now the home of the Rev. Anson Phelps Stokes, Secretary of Yale, it is filled with Yale memorabilia and rare prints. Just to the east is the Jarvis House of 1767. The house of the Rev. James Pierpont, a founder of Yale, is now occupied by The Graduate Club of Yale. The Jones House, 37 Elm St., was built in 1755 on the site of the original house of Theophilus Eaton. The Tory Tavern, 87 Elm St., has recently been purchased by the Elihu Club.

In the old cemetery on Grove St. are buried Roger Sherman, signer of the Declaration of Independence; Lyman Beecher, theologian and preacher; Noah Webster, compiler of the dictionary; Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanized rubber; Eli Whitney, inventor of the cotton gin; and many other men of prominence. Whitney first came to New Haven in 1789 and took his degree at Yale in 1792. In 1793 he hit upon the cotton gin idea while practicing law in Savannah. Losing money in his endeavor to prevent infringements of his patent he returned to New Haven in 1798 and took up the firearms, manufacture. The Eli Whitney homestead, on Huntington St., near Whitney Ave., is now the Agricultural Experiment Station.

The New Haven Colony Historical Society Building, on Grove St., at the foot of Hillhouse Ave., contains interesting relics of Colonial days. Here are preserved Benjamin Franklin’s Ley-den jars, the table on which Noah Webster wrote his dictionary, a silver spoon that belonged to Commodore Isaac Hull, Benedict Arnold’s account book, medicine chest, mortar and pestle, and the sign “B. Arnold Druggist / Book-Seller &c / From London / Sibi Totique.” The Benedict Arnold house was on Water St. Webster began his dictionary there, but later moved to the Trowbridge house, the oldest in the town (1642), on the corner of Grove and Temple Sts.

Hillhouse Avenue leads to the most desired residential quarter, and the Hillhouse family mansion. The Avenue was laid out by James Hillhouse, a wealthy merchant and U.S. Senator, who when Roger Sherman was Mayor in 1784 instituted many civic improvements. Resembling an Indian he was popularly known as `The Sachem,’ which sobriquet is pre-served in Sachem St. and the former Sachem Woods, now Pierson-Sage Square, occupied by the Sloan and the Osborn laboratories of the university. The streets were then given their present names, and the elms which have given the city its second name were then planted.

In the summer of 1637 there arrived in Boston a company of about 250 men, women, and children, who had been recruited in England by Theophilus Eaton and the Rev. John Davenport for the purpose of founding a Puritan settlement in America. Eaton and Davenport had been schoolmates. Eaton had become wealthy trading with the Baltic countries. As the pressure on the Puritans in England in-creased they conspired to leave England unbeknownst, for Eaton was rich and his goods would surely have been confiscated had the plan been suspected. In Boston inducements were held out by the local real estate magnates of the time, as they would be today, but Eaton there heard of a fair region of Quinnipiac which Boston men had hit upon in their pursuit of the Pequots. In the spring of I638 the whole party, joined by some. Boston recruits, sailed around the Cape, and on a Friday in April their craft was moored by the shore. Saturday they landed and made ready for the Sabbath rest. A tablet now marks the spot where the party landed. On their first Sunday Davenport preached on “Temptations of the Wilderness” beneath an oak tree which stood at what is now the corner of College and George Sts., where later Lyman Beecher’s father, a descendant of one of the first settlers, opened his blacksmith shop. The old Lyman Beecher House, 26I George St., was built in 1764.

The town was laid out in nine equal quadrilaterals with a central open square for a market by John Brockett, a young surveyor whose love of a Puritan maiden had led him to cross the seas. The dwellings ranged from mere huts to grand mansions, as befitted the varying rank and wealth of the newcomers. Eatones house was a huge one with nineteen fireplaces, furnished with carved tables and `Turkey’ carpets, altogether more luxurious than we usually picture the habitations of these first settlers. Eaton thriftily bought of the Indians the land now covered by New Haven and the surrounding towns for “one dozen coats, one dozen spoons, one dozen hoes, one dozen hatchets, one dozen porengers, two dozen knives, and four cases of French knives and scissors.” The plantation retained its Indian name, Quinnipiac, until 1640, when the present name was adopted. The government had nothing of democracy to hamper its efficiency. It was a veritable ecclesiastical hierarchy whose rigor is today commemorated in the legend of the Blue Laws (see Hartford, R. I) and whose first act was to erect the instruments of punishment on the Green. “The worde of God was adopted as the onely rule to be attended unto in ordering the affayres of government in this plantation.” Characteristic of Puritan inflexibility and sternness was the magistrate, Richard Malbon, who sat at the trial of his daughter, Martha, and condemned her to be flogged at the whipping post, which act was carried out in the market place. Indicative, too, of the stern manner in which justice was dispensed is the story of how one of the settlers having been found murdered in the woods, an Indian was captured; his guilt sufficiently established, he was laid over a log and his head chopped off and placed on a pole in the market place.

Eaton was a merchant and his aim was gain. Trade was at once begun with the Barbadoes and trading posts established on the Delaware. A ship, richly freighted, dispatched to England, was never heard from, but the legend telling of the specter of the ship sailing into the harbor in the teeth of a gale inspired Whittier’s poem.

New Haven remained strictly Puritan and at the Restoration its authorities did not hesitate to give aid and comfort to the regicides, Goffe, Whalley, and Dixwell. His Majestyes Governor a little later was treated with contempt by many of the townsfolk, who made a handsome living by smuggling. The evasion of the navigation laws and customs duties was regarded as a virtue rather than a crime. On July 5, 1779, a British force landed at West Haven and at Lighthouse Point. The militia including a company of Yale students fought a pitched battle with them at the corner of Broadway and York St. The British occupied the town, camping on the Green. Dr. Daggett, the President of the College, was taken captive and forced to act as guide. When all but dead from fatigue and repeated bayonet wounds, he was asked, “Will you fight again?” He is said to have answered, “I rather believe I shall if I have an opportunity.” When he was forced to pray for the King, it was as follows: “0 Lord, bless Thy servant, King George, and grant him wisdom, for Thou knowest, 0 Lord, he needs it.” The intent was to burn the town, but the next day, after destroying much shipping, they re-embarked and went to Fairfield. A monument on Allingtown Heights, southwest of the city, commemorates the humanity of the British commander, Adjutant William Campbell, who protected the helpless and prevented any needless destruction, but was shot in the midst of his kindly work. On his monument are the words: “Blessed Are The Merciful.”

YALE UNIVERSITY is, of course, the chief interest in New Haven both to visitors and residents, for the features of student and academic life add much that is picturesque, spectacular, and recreative to the life of the city. Among North American colleges the third in age and second perhaps in standing, she still justifies the title of `Mother of Colleges.’ Yale’s conservatism and the growth of other institutions have resulted in her dropping, in the last twenty years, from second place in numbers to twentieth. The University in its various departments enrolls 3300 students. Among her i6,000 living graduates are a former Chief Magistrate, hosts of U.S. Sena-tors and Representatives, many Governors, Mayors, Legislators, and College Presidents in every State in the Union. The claim that she “trains men for public service” is attested by Theodore Roosevelt, a Harvard alumnus, who has said that in every work he ever undertook for civic or legislative betterment he always found a Yale man shoulder to shoulder with him, ready to do his full share of the work. Yale men claim with justice a more democratic spirit than prevails at Harvard, her older and closest rival. The Yale view of the contrast is well expressed in the following interchange of toasts. Samuel C. Bushnell of Boston, a Yale alumnus, recently wrote:

“Herees to the city of Boston, The home of the bean and the cod, Where the Cabots speak only to Lowells, And the Lowells only with God.”

He sent this to Dean Jones of Yale College, who after consulting the Yale motto, “Lux et Veritas,” wrote back: “Herees to the town of New Haven,

The home of the Truth and the Light, Where God talks to Jones In the very same tones That he uses with Hadley and Dwight.”

The sixty or more buildings of Yale University lie mostly to the north and west of the Green. Guides may sometimes be found at the Phelps Gateway.

Facing the Green, where formerly stood the lamented `Old Fence’ across which for two centuries the College from her bower of trees looked out upon the Green, is now a long row of modern buildings of varied and doubtful architecture, mostly college dormitories. In the center of this long facade rises the Phelps Gateway. To the right on Elm St. is Battell Chapel. The College Catalog blandly explains that “the privileges of The Church of Christ in Yale University are extended to students,” and then goes on to explain that daily attendance at services is required. At the opposite end, on Chapel St.,

is Osborn Hall, a squat rotunda-like affair of brownstone in-tended for lectures. Entering through Phelps Gateway we are on the college Campus, stretching the length of which is the `New Fence,’ where the events of `Tap Day’ center. To the left stands Connecticut Hall, long known as Old South Middle (1750), a plain brick building of beautiful proportions, the only one of the Old Brick Row remaining. At the left of the campus is Vanderbilt Hall, a beneficence of the family, which still retains in it a suite of rooms for their occasional use.

At the extreme northwest corner of the campus is the Art School whose galleries contain the Jarves collection of early Italian painting, the most notable collection of Italian primitives in this country. In the Trumbull Gallery are over fifty paintings by Trumbull, Connecticut’s earliest and most distinguished painter, mostly representing events of the American Revolution. Beneath the building is the artist’s tomb with the inscription: “Colonel John Trumbull, Patriot and Artist, Friend and Aid of Washington, lies beside his wife beneath this Gallery of Art. Lebanon (Conn.), 1750-New York, 1843″ (adm. free in term; summer, 25c.).

On the north side of the campus is the old library in the, style of King’s College Chapel at Oxford, connected with which to the left are later incongruous additions. The ivy here has been planted by the graduating classes, and on Commencement Day the venerable survivors of classes whose ivies were planted fifty years before gather round and sing their Latin ivy odes. On the campus are statues of the first Yale president and other worthies. At the northeast angle of the campus are Dwight Hall, headquarters of the College Y.M.C.A., and Wright Hall, a dormitory. On the opposite corner is the Peabody Museum of Natural History (adm. free daily and Sun. aft.), in which the mineralogical and paleontological collections are especially noteworthy. On the opposite side of Elm St., to the left, is the Gymnasium and swimming pool. To the right on Elm St. is the block of dormitories known as Berkeley Oval, and just beyond the quadrangle of the Divinity School. Still farther along Elm St. beyond the Methodist Church is the Law School, a detached city block seemingly with nothing to lean against. At the corner of College and Grove Sts. are the Bicentennial Buildings,—Memorial Hall, containing the Civil War Memorial, to the left of which is Woolsey Hall with a great organ and to the right the great Dining Hall.

The buildings of the Sheffield Scientific School are opposite and continue to the east. The great block of buildings facing College and Elm Sts. and enclosing Vanderbilt Square have all been donated by Frederick Vanderbilt. They are of that modification of the French château architectural style which has become naturalized along upper Fifth Ave. The corner is occupied by St. Anthony Hall, otherwise known as `T Company,’ a Sheff Greek Letter Fraternity.

Behind on either side of Hillhouse Ave. are the more important Laboratory and Lecture Buildings of Sheff. On Hill-house Ave. in the center to the left is the Electrical Engineering Laboratory and opposite the Mason and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory. A white sandstone building on the left bears on its front the inscription “Leet Oliver Memorial Anno Domini MCMVII.” The student whose name is here commemorated some years ago after Commencement Day festivities, as a faculty member tersely expressed it, “ran his motor car off a nearby bridge and broke his neck.” His mother gave $350,000 for this building in memoriam. Yale seems to have suffered a number of such misfortunes. The Walter Husted Scholarship commemorates another student who was similarly killed in a motor accident, and the George Benedict Sherman Scholarship was founded by the mother of a student who was killed by falling off West Rock.

Yale men are proud of their traditions, by which they seem to mean their ancient ways of doing things. So the Yale “News” and the Yale “Lit” still appear with the artificially florid heading of Victorian time. The student life, especially in the clubs and fraternities, cherishes traditions. A better understanding of Yale may be gained, therefore, by some under-standing of the customs and clubs than by looking at the bare walls of lecture halls and dormitories. The ambition of every Yale man, apart from the making of the athletic teams, is to be taken into one of the three great senior societies. `Tap Day’ is the most eventful day in the life of the Yale man. At five o’clock on the second Thursday in May the members of the three senior societies who have been in solemn conclave during the afternoon issue one by one solemnly from their `tombs’ and proceed direct to the `New Fence’ on the campus. Here are assembled, lolling about the lawn with suppressed anxiety, all the members of the Junior Class. Now all visitors are excluded, but formerly an assemblage of under-graduates, pretty girls, fathers and mothers looked down from the windows of the dormitories about. One by one each member of a senior society wends his way through the crowd until he spies the man he is looking for. He brusquely slaps him on the shoulder with a “go to your room,” and thus announces to the undergraduate world and admiring friends that this man has made a `success’ of his undergraduate career.

Each of the senior societies has fifteen members, and each holds weekly meetings on Thursday night. All the societies, both the academic and Sheff, have society houses which are called `tombs,’ usually windowless and wearing an air of mystery. The Sheff fraternities have dormitories or luxurious club houses as well, often named after their patron saint, and vying with each other in the weirdness of their architecture.

The Skull and Bones is the oldest and was long the fore-most of the senior societies. The `Bones Tomb’ on High St, is a sepulchral, windowless, ivyclad building with iron doors. `Bones’ men are usually leaders in athletics or religious activities.

The Scroll and Keys tomb is at Wall and College Sts. `Keys’ has the reputation of recruiting its men from the wealthy and aristocratic. In recent years it has rather come to supplant `Bones’ in social primacy. Here at 12.30 A.M. every Friday morning on the breakup of the weekly meeting, sleepers in the neighborhood are roused by the lusty singing of the Troubador Song.

The Wolf’s Head, the third senior society, is socially somewhat like the Pi Eta at Harvard. Its tomb, rather Dutch in architecture, is out on Prospect St., but a new tomb is about to be erected on College St.

York Street was formerly the scene of the tumultuous fresh-man sophomore rush which followed the time-honored torchlight procession and the wrestling matches on the campus. This series of events, the night before college opened, was the real Yale `Commencement’ and night of convivial reunion. On York St. is the `Deke’ House, a junior society famous for its singing. At High and Grove Sts., ‘opposite the Egyptian gate-way to the old cemetery, a costly Greek marble temple, its two columns surmounted by Ionic capitals, is the tomb of the Sheff society, The Book and Snake. Its dormitory, The Cloister, a little below and opposite on Grove St. at the corner of Hillhouse Ave., is an attractive brownstone house whose luxurious deep bay-window seats give some suggestion of the strenuous life led by the `Shell frat’ man. The Colony Club, on Hillhouse Ave., may sound feminine to a New Yorker, but at Yale it indicates a Sheff society with a luxurious Colonial brick dormitory with columned portico. Their tomb, Berzelius, is on the corner of Whitney Ave., Trumbull, and Temple Sts. York Hall, on Wall near College Sts., looks like an imitation of the Palace of the Doges, but is really the headquarters of a Sheff society.

The Elizabethan Club, on College St. between Elm and Wall, occupies an inconspicuous building. It is unique among Yale institutions in that here a taste for literature, art, and afternoon tea may be openly avowed without fear of philistine contempt or charges of priggishness.

When Yale began and where is a little difficult to say. The intent was early, for John Davenport, the first minister, believed a college necessary in a State “whose design is religion,” and the famous Ezekiel Cheever was early imported from London “for the better training up of youth in this town, that through Godes blessing they may be fitted for public service.” In I657 there died in London an Edward Hopkins who had been Governor of Connecticut and amassed a fortune in colonial trade. In his will he left £1400 and a “negar” for the “breading up of hopeful youths in New England.” The money was divided between Hadley, Harvard, where it still supports “Deturs,” and New Haven, where the Hopkins Grammar School still survives.

But for more than half a century New Haven not only sent her future ministers to be trained at Harvard College, but every person “whose hart was willing” contributed a peck of “college corn,” sent yearly to Cambridge for their support.

In 1700 ten clergymen met at Branford and donated forty books toward the founding of a college that they might “educate ministers in our own way.” The next year this Collegiate School was chartered, and the trustees decided to locate it at Saybrook, then a convenient point of access midway on the water route from Hartford to New Haven. Thus it came about that Yale was founded by Connecticut Harvard graduates who wanted a ministerial training establishment nearer home. This is still celebrated in the song:

“Old Harvard was old Harvard When Yale was but a pup.”

In 1702, before the new college had had a student, it celebrated its first Commencement, at which degrees were conferred upon five Harvard graduates. Its first president, Abraham Pierson, was the minister at Killingworth, a few miles away, where the students went for instruction (R. 2). When Pierson died in I707 the senior class went to Milford to study with the new rector, who was minister there. The students complained of Saybrook as being a dull town, and in 1716 some of them went to Guilford and others to Wethersfield. Of course a college split up in this way was under difficulties and something had to be done. Hartford and New Haven both made bids for the college, but the latter’s was the highest, eight acres given by the town and about forty more contributed by individuals. The greatest op-position, however, was raised by the rivals, and when an attempt was made to remove the library from Wethersfield, where it then was, the sheriff had to be called in. After the books were loaded on the carts the wheels were removed, the bridges broken down, and consequently many books were lost. The students at Wethersfield, a “very vicious and turbulent set of fellows,” set up a rival college, and bad feeling ran high until 1726, when Mr. Williams of the Wethersfield college was elected president of the New Haven institution, thus uniting their fortunes.

Elihu Yale, a man of great wealth in London, was through the influence of Mr. Dummer, the agent for the colony in England, induced to aid the new colony. David Yale, his father, had been one of the first settlers in New Haven in I638, and Elihu had been born in Boston. As a young man he went to India and in course of time became Governor of Madras, where his extortionate methods with the natives won him a great fortune as well as great opprobrium. Elihu Yale sent to the College some books, a picture of the King of England, and a quantity of East India goods which were sold for its benefit. Thus cheaply he achieved an immortal fame as a benefactor, though in Madras he is still remembered as a tyrant and a grafter. The epitaph on his tombstone in the Wrexham churchyard is frank:

The first building for the College was erected at New Haven in 1717, and at its dedication the following year the trustees adopted this minute: ” We, the trustees, do with one -consent determine and ordain that our college house shall be called by the name of its munificent patron and shall be named Yale College.” This college house stood about where was the old college row, torn down a few years ago, in spite of the protest of Yale men, to make room for the present “architectural excrescences,” as a devoted alumnus has termed them.

To the clergy who controlled the college, theology was the basis of the “arts and sciences.” Every effort was made to preserve the doctrinal purity of Calvinism unsullied. In 1722 Rector Cutler was dismissed because of a leaning toward Episcopacy. In 1744 two students on returning to college were suspended for attending during vacation a church other than Congregational. Refusing to confess, they were expelled and their fellow students forbidden from even speaking to them from fear of corruption,—so zealously were the morals of Yale youth guarded. Corporal punishment, the system of fines, and the practice of printing studentse names according to social rank disappeared about the time of the Revolution.

Among Yalees more famous alumni, not already mentioned, have been John C. Calhoun, the statesman and orator; S. F. B. Morse, inventor of the telegraph; Jonathan Edwards, Calvinist theologian; Timothy Dwight, first President of Yale of that name, who a century ago wrote the first guide book of New England. One reads of the long list of poets and authors Yale has sent forth. Among them were Fenimore Cooper, who entered Yale at the age of thirteen and was rusticated during his junior year, when he joined the Navy, and Edmund Clarence Stedman, who entered college at fifteen and at seven-teen was suspended for irregularities.

Of course New Haven swarms with the variety of savants common to university towns. Among those who are better known to the multitude are: W. H. Taft, twenty-seventh President of the United States; Arthur T. Hadley, the modest President of Yale; Irving Fisher, who figures as a political economist among his brethren, but to the magazine-reading world is the man who knows all about the cost of living; William L. Phelps, who discovered that the novel is a profitable field for academic courses; Hiram Bingham, the South American explorer, excavator of Inca cities and revealer of the Monroe Doctrine as an obsolete shibboleth; Timothy Dwight, the second of that name to be President of Yale University; Eli Whitney, like ex-President Dwight in that he is also the third of his name, a financier if not an inventor, and president or vice president of several important New Haven companies.

New Haven is more than a university town and owes its greatness as much to Eli Whitney as to Eli Yale, for her importance as an industrial center dates from Whitney’s government contract of 125 years ago for the manufacture of fire-arms. The use of `interchangeable parts,’ now fundamental in the construction of all kinds of machinery, is due to Whitney. Because of this and his invention of the cotton gin, Barnard says in his “American Industrial History” that Whitney’s inventive genius “changed the industrial history of a nation.”

New Haven has remained a center for the manufacture of small arms. The mammoth plant where Winchester guns and cartridges are made employs over 17,500 people. Including proving ground and terminals it covers 781 acres. More than 25,000,000 rounds of ammunition are fired here every year in testing their output. The Marlin Firearms Corporation makes sporting guns of high quality. Both companies are now busy night and day on large war orders for the Allies.

Clock-making is an industry which developed and has prospered especially in Connecticut. The earlier clocks were fashioned entirely of wood. Eli Terry may perhaps be regarded as the founder of the modern clock industry. He was the first to make parts to gauge and patented a model clock in 1797. At the beginning of the nineteenth century he was manufacturing clocks by the thousand. The clock now on the Center Church was made in New Haven in 1814. The New Haven Clock Company, established in 1817, is today one of the largest establishments in the city. Its president is Walter Camp, wellknown throughout the country as an authority on athletics. New Haven’s clocks go all over the world.

Rubber shoes and other goods were first manufactured in New Haven in 1842. The first license to manufacture rubber shoes under his new process of vulcanization was granted by Charles Goodyear to Leverett Candee. Mr. Candee enlisted the financial aid of Henry and Lucius Hotchkiss, prominent local merchants whose family is still actively identified with the New Haven Rubber Industry. The first rubber shoes were received with many doubts and suspicions and it was a long time before the public could be convinced that a new article was being marketed which, far from being a luxury, would become an indispensable necessity. In 1848 a new impetus was given to the business by decisions upholding the validity of the Goodyear patent and confirming the licensees in their rights. It is interesting to note that in this litigation Daniel Webster represented the licensees, of which at this time there were a number, including the Goodyear India Rubber Glove Mfg. Co. and the Goodyear Metallic Rubber Shoe Company of Naugatuck. Webster received a fee of $10,000, which at that time was deemed colossal.

When the United States Rubber Company, the second of the large industrial corporations, was organized in 1892 the Candee Company was one of the most important units around which the `rubber trust’ was formed. Today this company em-ploys over 54,000 people and its annual business exceeds $100,000,000.

The manufacture of hardware is represented by several firms, the most important being Sargent & Company, started in 1834, and now grown to be one of the greatest industrial plants in the world. They have 4000 employees and turn out 60,000 different articles sold almost entirely to the hard-ware trade. The H. B. Ives Company, established in 1872 by Hobert B. Ives, who is still head of the company, is another large manufacturer of builders’ hardware.

The New Haven Chamber of Commerce, founded in 1794, is the second oldest in the country and has taken an active part in extending the industries of the city and broadening the markets for other products. It occupies a fine new building south of the Green and at 673 Chapel St. maintains a free exhibit of “Made in New Haven Products” together with an information bureau and a reading room with files of papers.